1Samuel 15:8-35 tells of Agag king of the Amalekites.
Haman, here in Esther, is a descendant of Agag.
The blue text is from the apocrypha and put in the proper order.
In the second year of the reign of Artaxerxes the great king, on the first day of Nisan, Mordecai the son of Jair, the son of Shimeia, the son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Judahite dwelling in the city Shushan, a great man, serving in the king's palace, saw a vision. Now he was of the captivity which Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon had carried captive from Jerusalem, with Jechoniah the king of Judah.
And this was his dream: Behold, voices and a noise, thunders and earthquake, tumult upon the earth. And, behold, two great serpents came forth, both ready for conflict, and there came from them a great voice, and by their voice every nation was prepared for battle, even to fight against the nation of the just. And, behold, a day of darkness and blackness, tribulation and anguish, affection and tumult upon the earth. And all the righteous nation was troubled, fearing their own afflictions; and they prepared to die, and cried to God: and from their cry there came as it were a great river from a little fountain , even much water. And light and the sun arose, and the lowly were exalted, and devoured the honorable.
And Mordecai who had seen this vision and what God desired to do, having awoke, kept it in his heart, and desired by all means to interpret it, even till night. And Mordecai rested quiet in the palace with Gabatha (Bigthan) and Tharrha (Teresh) the king's two chamberlains, eunuchs who guarded the palace. And he heard their reasoning and searched out their plans, and learnt that they were preparing to lay hands on king Artaxerxes: and he informed the king concerning them. And the king examined the two chamberlains, and they confessed, and were executed. And the king wrote these things for a memorial: also Mordecai wrote concerning these matters. And the king commanded Mordecai to attend in the palace, and gave gifts for this service. And Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite was honourable in the sight of the king, and he endeavored to hurt Mordecai and his people, because of the two chamberlains of the king.
Esther in Hebrew is Hadassah, meaning 'myrtle'.
The removal of Vashti
Esther 1:1 Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes), (this is Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes) which reigned, from India even unto Ethiopia, over an hundred and seven and twenty provinces:) (Ezra 4:6)
1:2 That in those days, when the king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes) sat on the throne of his kingdom, which was in Shushan the palace,
1:3 In the third year of his reign, he made a feast unto all his princes and his servants; the power of Persia and Media, the nobles and princes (governors) of the provinces, being before him:
1:4 When he shewed the riches of his glorious kingdom and the honour of his excellent majesty many days, even an hundred and fourscore days.
1:5 And when these days were expired (fulfilled), the king made a feast unto all the people that were present in Shushan the palace, both unto great and small, seven days, in the court of the garden of the king's palace;
1:6 Where were white, green, and blue, hangings, fastened with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and pillars of marble: the beds were of gold and silver, upon a pavement of red, and blue, and white, and black, marble.
1:7 And they gave them drink in vessels of gold, (the vessels being diverse one from another,) and royal wine in abundance, according to the state (hand) of the king.
1:8 And the drinking was according to the law; none did compel: for so the king had appointed to all the officers of his house, that they should do according to every man's pleasure.
1:9 Also Vashti the queen made a feast for the women in the royal house which belonged to king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes).
1:10 On the seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine, he commanded Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, and Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, the seven chamberlains (eunuchs) that served in the presence of Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes) the king,
1:11 To bring Vashti the queen before the king with the crown royal, to shew the people and the princes her beauty: for she was fair to look on.
1:12 But the queen Vashti refused to come at the king's commandment by his chamberlains (eunuchs): therefore was the king very wroth, and his anger burned in him.
Vashti didn't want to be on display.
1:13 Then the king said to the wise men, which knew the times, (for so was the king's manner toward all that knew law and judgment:
1:14 And the next unto him was Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan, the seven princes (officials) of Persia and Media, which saw the king's face, and which sat the first in the kingdom;)
1:15 What shall we do unto the queen Vashti according to law, because she hath not performed the commandment of the king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes) by the chamberlains (eunuchs)?
1:16 And Memucan answered before the king and the princes, Vashti the queen hath not done wrong to the king only, but also to all the princes (officials), and to all the people that are in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes).
1:17 For this deed of the queen shall come abroad unto all women, so that they shall despise their husbands in their eyes, when it shall be reported, The king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes) commanded Vashti the queen to be brought in before him, but she came not.
Ephesians 5:33 Nevertheless let every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; and the wife see that she reverence her husband.
1:18 Likewise shall the ladies of Persia and Media say this day unto all the king's princes, which have heard of the deed of the queen. Thus shall there arise too much contempt and wrath.
Now all the women will rebel.
1:19 If it please the king, let there go a royal commandment from him, and let it be written among the laws of the Persians and the Medes, that it be not altered, That Vashti come no more before king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes); and let the king give her royal estate unto another that is better than she.
1:20 And when the king's decree which he shall make shall be published throughout all his empire, (for it is great,) all the wives shall give to their husbands honour, both to great and small.
1:21 And the saying pleased the king and the princes (officials); and the king did according to the word of Memucan:
1:22 For he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should bear rule in his own house, and that it should be published according to the language of every people.
22 Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the Prince (Yahshua).
23 For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the assembly: and He is the Deliverer of the body.
24 Therefore as the assembly is subject unto Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in every thing.
1Timothy 2:12 But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.
Esther 2:1 After these things, when the wrath of king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes) was appeased, he remembered Vashti, and what she had done, and what was decreed against her.
2:2 Then said the king's servants that ministered unto him, Let there be fair young virgins sought for the king:
2:3 And let the king appoint officers in all the provinces of his kingdom, that they may gather together all the fair young virgins unto Shushan the palace, to the house of the women, unto the custody of Hege the king's chamberlain (eunuch), keeper of the women; and let their things for purification be given them:
2:4 And let the maiden which pleaseth the king be queen instead of Vashti. And the thing pleased the king; and he did so.
2:5 Now in Shushan the palace there was a certain Jew (Judahite), whose name was Mordecai, the son of Jair, the son of Shimei, the son of Kish, a Benjamite;
The Jews are of Cain and Esau. They are not Israelites. The correct term is Judah, this would include the tribes of Benjamin and Levi. Judah was the southern kingdom of Israel.
2:6 Who had been carried away from Jerusalem with the captivity which had been carried away with Jeconiah king of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had carried away.
14 And he carried away all Jerusalem, and all the princes, and all the mighty men of valour, even ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and smiths: none remained, save the poorest sort of the people of the land.
15 And he carried away Jehoiachin to Babylon, and the king's mother, and the king's wives, and his officers, and the mighty of the land, those carried he into captivity from Jerusalem to Babylon.
2:7 And he brought up (raised) Hadassah, that is, Esther, his uncle's daughter: for she had neither father nor mother, and the maid was fair and beautiful; whom Mordecai, when her father and mother were dead, took for his own daughter.
Mordecai adopted Esther.
2:8 So it came to pass, when the king's commandment and his decree was heard, and when many maidens were gathered together unto Shushan the palace, to the custody of Hegai, that Esther was brought also unto the king's house, to the custody of Hegai, keeper of the women.
2:9 And the maiden pleased him, and she obtained kindness of him; and he speedily gave her her things for purification, with such things as belonged to her, and seven maidens, which were meet to be given her, out of the king's house: and he preferred her and her maids unto the best place of the house of the women.
2:10 Esther had not shewed her people nor her kindred: for Mordecai had charged her that she should not shew it.
Esther was keeping her identity secret. Possibly because Haman was an evil man with evil intent.
2:11 And Mordecai walked every day before the court of the women's house, to know how Esther did, and what should become of her.
2:12 Now when every maid's turn was come to go in to king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes), after that she had been twelve months, according to the manner of the women, (for so were the days of their purifications accomplished, to wit, six months with oil of myrrh, and six months with sweet odours, and with other things for the purifying of the women;)
2:13 Then thus came every maiden unto the king; whatsoever she desired was given her to go with her out of the house of the women unto the king's house.
2:14 In the evening she went, and on the morrow she returned into the second house of the women, to the custody of Shaashgaz, the king's chamberlain (eunuch), which kept the concubines: she came in unto the king no more, except the king delighted in her, and that she were called by name.
2:15 Now when the turn of Esther, the daughter of Abihail the uncle of Mordecai, who had taken her for his daughter, was come to go in unto the king, she required nothing but what Hegai the king's chamberlain (eunuch), the keeper of the women, appointed. And Esther obtained favour in the sight of all them that looked upon her.
2:16 So Esther was taken unto king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes) into his house royal in the tenth month, which is the month Tebeth, in the seventh year of his reign.
2:17 And the king loved Esther above all the women, and she obtained grace and favour in his sight more than all the virgins; so that he set the royal crown upon her head, and made her queen instead of Vashti.
2:18 Then the king made a great feast unto all his princes (officials) and his servants, even Esther's feast; and he made a release (holiday) to the provinces, and gave gifts, according to the state of the king.
2:19 And when the virgins were gathered together the second time, then Mordecai sat in the king's gate.
2:20 Esther had not yet shewed her kindred nor her people; as Mordecai had charged her: for Esther did the commandment of Mordecai, like as when she was brought up with him.
2:21 In those days, while Mordecai sat in the king's gate, two of the king's chamberlains (eunuchs), Bigthan and Teresh, of those which kept the door, were wroth, and sought to lay hand on the king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes).
2:22 And the thing was known to Mordecai, who told it unto Esther the queen; and Esther certified the king thereof in Mordecai's name.
2:23 And when inquisition was made of the matter, it was found out; therefore they were both hanged on a tree: and it was written in the book of the chronicles before the king.
Mordecai saved the king's life by revealing the plot against him.
Plot to kill Judahites
Esther 3:1 After these things did king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes) promote Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, and advanced him, and set his seat above all the princes (officials) that were with him.
Haman was a descendant of Agag, of the Amalekites. A Canaanite Jew.
1Samuel 15:8 And he (Saul) took Agag the king of the Amalekites alive, and utterly destroyed all the people with the edge of the sword.
3:2 And all the king's servants, that were in the king's gate, bowed, and reverenced Haman: for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not, nor did him reverence.
Israelites are forbidden to bow to kings and princes of other nations. Daniel also refused to bow to the other gods and eat the unclean food of the Babylonians.
3:3 Then the king's servants, which were in the king's gate, said unto Mordecai, Why transgressest you the king's commandment?
3:4 Now it came to pass, when they spake daily unto him, and he hearkened not unto them, that they told Haman, to see whether Mordecai's matters would stand: for he had told them that he was a Judahite.
3:5 And when Haman saw that Mordecai bowed not, nor did him reverence, then was Haman full of wrath.
3:6 And he thought scorn to lay hands on Mordecai alone; for they had shewed him the people of Mordecai: wherefore Haman sought to destroy all the Judahites that were throughout the whole kingdom of Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes), even the people of Mordecai.
Psalm 83:4 They have said, Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance.
3:7 In the first month, that is, the month Nisan (Abib), in the twelfth year of king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes), they cast Pur, that is, the lot, before Haman from day to day, and from month to month, to the twelfth month, that is, the month Adar.
3:8 And Haman said unto king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes), There is a certain people scattered abroad and dispersed among the people in all the provinces of your kingdom; and their laws are diverse from all people; neither keep they the king's laws: therefore it is not for the king's profit to suffer them. (Wis 2:14-15)
These certain dispersed people are Israelites. When the Assyrians rose to power, they were part of Yahweh's punishment upon disobedient Israel. The Israelites were taken captive and relocated throughout the coastlands. These are some of the scattered “lost sheep”.
3:9 If it please the king, let it be written that they may be destroyed: and I will pay ten thousand talents of silver to the hands of those that have the charge of the business, to bring it into the king's treasuries.
3:10 And the king took his ring from his hand, and gave it unto Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, the Judahites' enemy.
3:11 And the king said unto Haman, The silver is given to you, the people also, to do with them as it seemeth good to you.
3:12 Then were the king's scribes called on the thirteenth day of the first month, and there was written according to all that Haman had commanded unto the king's lieutenants, and to the governors that were over every province, and to the rulers of every people of every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language; in the name of king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes) was it written, and sealed with the king's ring.
3:13 And the letters were sent by posts (runners) into all the king's provinces, to destroy, to kill, and to cause to perish, all Judahites, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, even upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to take the spoil of them for a prey.
Haman, the Agagite Jew, ordered the killing of Israelites (Judahites). The Jews have done this throughout history, bribing authorities and agitating the murder of our people.
And the following is the copy of the letter; The great king Artaxerxes writes thus to the rulers and inferior governors of a hundred and twenty-seven provinces, from India even to Ethiopia, who hold authority under him. Ruling over many nations and having obtained dominion over the whole world, I was minded (not elated by the confidence of power, but ever conducting myself with great moderation and gentleness) to make the lives of my subjects continually tranquil, desiring both to maintain the kingdom quiet and orderly to its utmost limits, and to restore the peace desired by all men. But when I had enquired of my counsellors how this should be brought to pass. Haman, who excels in soundness of judgment among us, and has been manifestly well inclined without wavering and with unshaken fidelity, and had obtained the second post in the kingdom, informed us that a certain ill-disposed (rebellious) people is mixed up (scattered abroad) with all the tribes throughout the (known) world, opposed in their law to every other nation, and continually neglecting the commands of the king, so that the united government blamelessly administered by us is not quietly established. Having then conceived that this nation alone of all others is continually set in opposition to every man, introducing as a change a foreign code of laws, and injuriously plotting to accomplish the worst of evils against our interests, and against the happy establishment of the monarchy; we signified to you in the letter written by Haman, who is set over the public affairs and is our second governor, to destroy them all utterly with their wives and children by the swords of the enemies, without pitying or sparing any, on the fourteenth day of the twelfth month Adar, of the present year; that the people aforetime and now ill-disposed to us having been violently consigned to death in one day, may hereafter secure to us continually a well constituted and quiet state of affairs.
3:14 The copy of the writing for a commandment to be given in every province was published unto all people, that they should be ready against that day.
3:15 The posts (runners) went out, being hastened by the king's commandment, and the decree was given in Shushan the palace. And the king and Haman sat down to drink; but the city Shushan was perplexed.
Esther's help needed
Esther 4:1 When Mordecai perceived all that was done, Mordecai rent his clothes, and put on sackcloth with ashes, and went out into the midst of the city, and cried with a loud and a bitter cry;
4:2 And came even before the king's gate: for none might enter into the king's gate clothed with sackcloth.
4:3 And in every province, whithersoever the king's commandment and his decree came, there was great mourning among the Judahites, and fasting, and weeping, and wailing; and many lay in sackcloth and ashes.
3Maccabees 4:2 The Judahites suffered great throes of sorrow, and wept much; while their hearts, all things around being lamentable, were set on fire as they bewailed the sudden destruction which was decreed against them.
4:4 So Esther's maids and her chamberlains (eunuchs) came and told it her. Then was the queen exceedingly grieved; and she sent raiment to clothe Mordecai, and to take away his sackcloth from him: but he received it not.
4:5 Then called Esther for Hatach, one of the king's chamberlains (eunuchs), whom he had appointed to attend upon her, and gave him a commandment to Mordecai, to know what it was, and why it was.
4:6 So Hatach went forth to Mordecai unto the street of the city, which was before the king's gate.
4:7 And Mordecai told him of all that had happened unto him, and of the sum of the money that Haman had promised to pay to the king's treasuries for the Judahites, to destroy them.
4:8 Also he gave him the copy of the writing of the decree that was given at Shushan to destroy them, to shew it unto Esther, and to declare it unto her, and to charge her that she should go in unto the king, to make supplication unto him, and to make request before him for her people.
Septuagint: 4:8 And he gave him the copy of the writing that was published in Susa (Shushan) concerning their destruction, to shew to Esther; and told him to charge her to go in and intreat the king, and to beg him for the people, remembering, said he, the days of thy low estate, how thou wert nursed by my hand: because Aman (Haman) who holds the next place to the king has spoken against us for death. Do thou call upon Yahweh, and speak to the king concerning us, to deliver us from death.
4:9 And Hatach came and told Esther the words of Mordecai.
4:10 Again Esther spake unto Hatach, and gave him commandment unto Mordecai;
4:11 All the king's servants, and the people of the king's provinces, do know, that whosoever, whether man or woman, shall come unto the king into the inner court, who is not called, there is one law of his to put him to death, except such to whom the king shall hold out the golden sceptre, that he may live: but I have not been called to come in unto the king these thirty days.
4:12 And they told to Mordecai Esther's words.
4:13 Then Mordecai commanded to answer Esther, Think not with yourself that you shalt escape in the king's house, more than all the Judahites.
4:14 For if you altogether holdest your peace at this time, then shall there enlargement and deliverance arise to the Judahites from another place; but you and your father's house shall be destroyed: and who knoweth whether you art come to the kingdom for such a time as this?
4:15 Then Esther bade them return Mordecai this answer,
4:16 Go, gather together all the Judahites that are present in Shushan, and fast you for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day: I also and my maidens will fast likewise; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law: and if I perish, I perish. (v11)
4:17 So Mordecai went his way, and did according to all that Esther had commanded him.
And he (Mordecai) besought Yahweh, making mention of all the works of Yahweh; and he said, Yahweh God, king ruling over all, for all things are in Your power, and there is no one that shall oppose You, in Your purpose to save Israel. - For You hast made the heaven and the earth and every wonderful thing in the world under heaven. And You art Master of all, and there is no one who shall resist You Yahweh. You knowest all things: You knowest, Yahweh, that it is not in insolence, nor haughtiness, nor love of glory, that I have done this, to refuse obeisance to the haughty Haman. For I would gladly have kissed the soles of his feet for the safety of Israel. But I have done this, that I might not set the glory of man above the glory of God: and I will not worship any one except You, my Master, and I will not do these things in haughtiness. And now, O Yahweh God, the King, the God of Abraham, spare Your people, for our enemies are looking upon us to our destruction, and they have desired to destroy Your ancient inheritance. Do not overlook Your peculiar people, whom You hast redeemed for Yourself out of the land of Egypt. Hearken to my prayer, and be propitious to Your inheritance, and turn our mourning into gladness, that we may live and sing praise to Your name, O Yahweh; and do not utterly destroy the mouth of them that praise You, O Yahweh.
And all Israel cried with all their might, for death was before their eyes. And queen Esther betook herself for refuge to Yahweh, being taken as it were in the agony of death. And having taken off her glorious apparel, she put on garments of distress and mourning; and instead of grand perfumes she filled her head with ashes and dung, and she greatly brought down her body, and she filled every place of her glad adorning with the torn curls of her hair.
And she besought Yahweh God of Israel, and said, O my Master, You alone art our king: help me who am destitute, and have no helper but You, for my danger is near at hand. I have heard from my birth, in the tribe of my kindred that You, Yahweh, tookest Israel out of all the nations, and our fathers out of all their kindred for a perpetual inheritance, and hast wrought for them all that You hast said. And now we have sinned before You, and You hast delivered us into the hands of our enemies, because we honoured their gods (paganism): You art righteous, O Yahweh. But now they have not been contented with the bitterness of our slavery, but have laid their hands on the hands of their idols, in order to abolish the decree of Your mouth, and utterly to destroy Your inheritances, and to stop the mouth of them that praise You, and to extinguish the glory of Your house and Your alter, and to open the mouth of the nations to speak the praises of vanities, and in order that a mortal king should be admired for ever.
O Yahweh, do not resign Your scepter to them that are not, and let them not laugh at our fall, but turn their counsel, against themselves, and make an example of him who has begun to injure us. Remember us, O Yahweh, manifest Yourself in the time of our affliction, and encourage me, O King of gods, and ruler of all dominion. Put harmonious speech into my mouth before the lion, and turn his heart to hate him that fights against us, to the utter destruction of him that consent with him. But deliver us by Your hand, and help me who am destitute, and have none but You, O Yahweh. You knowest all things, and knowest that I hate the glory of transgressors, and that I abhor the couch of the uncircumcised, and of every stranger. You knowest my necessity, for I abhor the symbol of my proud station, which is upon my head in the days of my splendour: I abhor it as a menstruous cloth, and I wear it not in the days of my tranquility. And Your handmaid has not eaten at the table of Haman, and I have not honoured the banquet of the king, neither have I drunk wine of libations. Neither has Your handmaid rejoiced since the day of my promotion until now, except in You, O Yahweh God of Abraham. O Yahweh, who has power over all, hearken to the voice of the desperate, and deliver us from the hand of them that devise mischief; and deliver me from my fear.
Esther 5:1 Now it came to pass on the third day, when she had ceased praying, that she put off her mean (wanting dignity) dress, that Esther put on her royal apparel, and being splendidly arrayed, and having called upon God the Overseer and Preserver of all things, she took her two maids, and she leaned upon one, as a delicate female, and the other followed bearing her train. And she was blooming in the perfection of her beauty; and her face was cheerful, and it were benevolent, but her heart was straitened for fear. And having passed through all the doors, and stood in the inner court of the king's house, over against the king's house: and the king sat upon his royal throne in the royal house, over against the gate of the house. There she stood before the king: and he was sitting upon his royal throne, and he had put on all his glorious apparel, covered all over with gold and precious stones, and was very terrible (awesome). And having raised his face resplendent with glory, he looked with intense anger: and the queen fell, and changed her colour as she fainted; and she bowed herself upon the head of the maid that went before her. But God changed the spirit of the king to gentleness, and in intense feeling he sprang from off his throne, and took her into his arms, until she recovered: and he comforted her with peaceable words, and said to her, What is the matter, Esther? I am your brother; be of good cheer, you shalt not die, for our commandment concerns the commons and not you, Draw nigh.
5:2 And it was so, when the king saw Esther the queen standing in the court, that she obtained favour in his sight: and the king held out to Esther the golden sceptre that was in his hand. So Esther drew near, and touched the top of the sceptre.
And having raised the golden sceptre he laid it upon her neck, and embraced her, and said, Speak to me. And she said to him, I saw you, my lord, as an angel of God, and my heart was troubled for fear of your glory; for you, my lord, art to be wondered at, and your face is full of grace. And while she was speaking, she again fainted and fell. Then the king was troubled, and all his servants comforted her.
Proverbs 21:1 The king's heart is in the hand of Yahweh, as the rivers of water: He turneth it whithersoever He will.
5:3 Then said the king unto her, What wilt you, queen Esther? and what is your request? it shall be even given you to the half of the kingdom.
5:4 And Esther answered, If it seem good unto the king, let the king and Haman come this day unto the banquet that I have prepared for him.
5:5 Then the king said, Cause Haman to make haste, that he may do as Esther hath said. So the king and Haman came to the banquet that Esther had prepared.
5:6 And the king said unto Esther at the banquet of wine, What is your petition? and it shall be granted you: and what is your request? even to the half of the kingdom it shall be performed.
5:7 Then answered Esther, and said, My petition and my request is;
5:8 If I have found favour in the sight of the king, and if it please the king to grant my petition, and to perform my request, let the king and Haman come to the banquet that I shall prepare for them, and I will do to morrow as the king hath said.
5:9 Then went Haman forth that day joyful and with a glad heart: but when Haman saw Mordecai in the king's gate, that he stood not up, nor moved for him, he was full of indignation against Mordecai.
5:10 Nevertheless Haman refrained himself: and when he came home, he sent and called for his friends, and Zeresh his wife.
5:11 And Haman told them of the glory of his riches, and the multitude of his children, and all the things wherein the king had promoted him, and how he had advanced him above the princes (officials) and servants of the king.
5:12 Haman said moreover, Yea, Esther the queen did let no man come in with the king unto the banquet that she had prepared but myself; and to morrow am I invited unto her also with the king.
5:13 Yet all this availeth me nothing, so long as I see Mordecai the Judahite sitting at the king's gate.
5:14 Then said Zeresh his wife and all his friends unto him, Let a gallows be made of fifty cubits high, and to morrow speak you unto the king that Mordecai may be hanged thereon: then go you in merrily with the king unto the banquet. And the thing pleased Haman; and he caused the gallows to be made.
Esther 6:1 On that night could not the king sleep, and he commanded to bring the book of records of the chronicles (words of the days); and they were read before the king.
6:2 And it was found written, that Mordecai had told of Bigthana and Teresh, two of the king's chamberlains (eunuchs), the keepers of the door, who sought to lay hand on the king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes).
6:3 And the king said, What honour and dignity hath been done to Mordecai for this? Then said the king's servants that ministered unto him, There is nothing done for him.
6:4 And the king said, Who is in the court? Now Haman was come into the outward court of the king's house, to speak unto the king to hang Mordecai on the gallows that he had prepared for him.
6:5 And the king's servants said unto him, Behold, Haman standeth in the court. And the king said, Let him come in.
6:6 So Haman came in. And the king said unto him, What shall be done unto the man whom the king delighteth to honour? Now Haman thought in his heart (mind), To whom would the king delight to do honour more than to myself?
6:7 And Haman answered the king, For the man whom the king delighteth to honour,
6:8 Let the royal apparel be brought which the king useth to wear, and the horse that the king rideth upon, and the crown royal which is set upon his head:
6:9 And let this apparel and horse be delivered to the hand of one of the king's most noble princes (officials), that they may array the man withal whom the king delighteth to honour, and bring him on horseback through the street of the city, and proclaim before him, Thus shall it be done to the man whom the king delighteth to honour.
6:10 Then the king said to Haman, Make haste, and take the apparel and the horse, as you hast said, and do even so to Mordecai the Judahite, that sitteth at the king's gate: let nothing fail of all that you hast spoken.
6:11 Then took Haman the apparel and the horse, and arrayed Mordecai, and brought him on horseback through the street of the city, and proclaimed before him, Thus shall it be done unto the man whom the king delighteth to honour.
6:12 And Mordecai came again to the king's gate. But Haman hasted to his house mourning, and having his head covered.
6:13 And Haman told Zeresh his wife and all his friends every thing that had befallen him. Then said his wise men and Zeresh his wife unto him, If Mordecai be of the seed of the Judahites, before whom you hast begun to fall, you shalt not prevail against him, but shalt surely fall before him.
6:14 And while they were yet talking with him, came the king's chamberlains (eunuchs), and hasted to bring Haman unto the banquet that Esther had prepared.
Esther 7:1 So the king and Haman came to banquet with Esther the queen.
7:2 And the king said again unto Esther on the second day at the banquet of wine, What is your petition, queen Esther? and it shall be granted you: and what is your request? and it shall be performed, even to the half of the kingdom.
7:3 Then Esther the queen answered and said, If I have found favour in your sight, O king, and if it please the king, let my life be given me at my petition, and my people at my request:
7:4 For we are sold, I and my people, to be destroyed, to be slain, and to perish. But if we had been sold for bondmen and bondwomen, I had held my tongue, although the enemy could not countervail the king's damage.
7:5 Then the king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes) answered and said unto Esther the queen, Who is he, and where is he, that durst presume in his heart to do so?
7:6 And Esther said, The adversary and enemy is this wicked Haman. Then Haman was afraid before the king and the queen.
The enmity of Genesis 3:15 is always revealed throughout history. The adversary, the enemy, the false accuser is always the Canaanite and Edomite Jews.
7:7 And the king arising from the banquet of wine in his wrath went into the palace garden: and Haman stood up to make request for his life to Esther the queen; for he saw that there was evil (calamity, doom) determined against him by the king.
7:8 Then the king returned out of the palace garden into the place of the banquet of wine; and Haman was fallen upon the bed whereon Esther was. Then said the king, Will he force the queen also before me in the house? As the word went out of the king's mouth, they covered Haman's face (his countenance changed).
7:9 And Harbonah, one of the chamberlains (eunuchs), said before the king, Behold also, the gallows fifty cubits high, which Haman had made for Mordecai, who had spoken good for the king, standeth in the house of Haman. Then the king said, Hang him thereon.
7:10 So they hanged Haman on the gallows that he had prepared for Mordecai. Then was the king's wrath pacified.
Decree of Judahite genocide revoked
Esther 8:1 On that day did the king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes) give the house of Haman the Judahites' enemy unto Esther the queen. And Mordecai came before the king; for Esther had told what he was unto her. Her uncle.
8:2 And the king took off his ring, which he had taken from Haman, and gave it unto Mordecai. And Esther set Mordecai over the house of Haman.
8:3 And Esther spake yet again before the king, and fell down at his feet, and besought him with tears to put away the mischief of Haman the Agagite, and his device that he had devised against the Judahites.
8:4 Then the king held out the golden sceptre toward Esther. So Esther arose, and stood before the king,
8:5 And said, If it please the king, and if I have found favour in his sight, and the thing seem right before the king, and I be pleasing in his eyes, let it be written to reverse the letters devised by Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, which he wrote to destroy the Judahites which are in all the king's provinces:
8:6 For how can I endure to see the evil that shall come unto my people? or how can I endure to see the destruction of my kindred?
8:7 Then the king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes) said unto Esther the queen and to Mordecai the Judahite, Behold, I have given Esther the house of Haman, and him they have hanged upon the gallows, because he laid his hand upon the Judahites.
8:8 Write you also for the Judahites, as it liketh you, in the king's name, and seal it with the king's ring: for the writing which is written in the king's name, and sealed with the king's ring, may no man reverse.
3Maccabees 7:10 When they had received this letter, they were not forward to depart immediately. They petitioned the king to be allowed to inflict fitting punishment upon those of their race who had willingly transgressed the holy god, and the law of God.
8:9 Then were the king's scribes called at that time in the third month, that is, the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded unto the Judahites, and to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces which are from India (Hodu) unto Ethiopia (Kush), an hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Judahites according to their writing, and according to their language.
8:10 And he wrote in the king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes') name, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, and riders on mules, camels, and young dromedaries:
8:11 Wherein the king granted the Judahites which were in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all the power of the people and province that would assault them, both little ones and women, and to take the spoil of them for a prey,
8:12 Upon one day in all the provinces of king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes), namely, upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar.
8:13 The copy of the writing for a commandment to be given in every province was published unto all people, and that the Judahites should be ready against that day to avenge themselves on their enemies.
The great king Artaxerxes sends greetings to the rulers of provinces in a hundred and twenty-seven satrapies, from Hodu to Kush, even to those who are faithful to our interests. Many who have been frequently honored by the most abundant kindness of their benefactors have conceived ambitious designs, and not only endeavour to hurt our subjects, but moreover, not being able to bear prosperity, they also endeavour to plot against their own benefactors. And they not only would utterly abolish gratitude from among men, but also, elated by the boastings of men who are strangers to all that is good, they supposed that they shall escape the sin-hating vengeance of the ever-seeing God. And oftentimes evil exhortation has made partakers of the guilt of shedding innocent blood, and has involved in irremediable calamities, many of those who had been appointed to offices of authority, who had been entrusted with the management of their friends' affairs; while men, by the false sophistry of an evil disposition, have deceived the simple candour of the ruling powers. And it is possible to see this, not so much from more ancient traditionary accounts, as it is immediately in your power to see it by examining what things have been wickedly perpetrated by the baseness of men unworthily holding power. And it is right to take heed with regard to the future, that we may maintain the government in undistributed peace for all men, adopting needful changes, and ever judging those cases which come under our notices, with truly equitable decision.
For whereas Haman, a Macedonian, the son of Hammedatha, in reality an alien from the blood of the Persians, and differing widely from our mild course of government, having been hospitable entertained by us, obtained so large a share of our universal kindness, as to be called our father, and to continue the person next to the royal throne, reverenced of all; he however, overcome by the pride of his station, endeavored to deprive us of our dominion, and our life: having by various and subtle artifices demanded for destruction both Mordecai our deliverer and perpetual benefactor, and Esther the blameless consort of our kingdom, with their whole nation. For by these methods he thought, having surprised us in a defenceless state, to transfer the dominion of the Persians to the Macedonians. But we find that the Judahites, who have been consigned to destruction by the most abominable of men, are not malefactors, but living according to the justest laws, and being the sons of the living God, the most high and mighty, who maintains the kingdom. to us as well as to our forefathers, in the most excellent order.
Ye will therefore do well in refusing to obey the letter sent by Haman the son of Hammedatha, because he that has done these things, has been hanged with his whole family at the gates of Susa (Shushan), Almighty God having swiftly returned to him a worthy recompence, We enjoin you then, having openly published a copy of this letter in every place, to give the Judahites permission to use their own lawful customs, and to strengthen them, that on the thirteenth of the twelfth month Adar, on the self-same day, they may defend themselves against those who attack them in a time of affliction. For in the place of the destruction of the chosen race, Almighty God has granted them this time of gladness.
Do you therefore also, among your notable feasts, keep a distinct day with all festivity, that both now and hereafter it may be a day of deliverance to us and who are well disposed toward the Persians, but to those that plotted against us a memorial of destruction. And every city and province collectively, which shall not do accordingly, shall be consumed with vengeance by spear and fire: it shall be made not only inaccessible to men, but most hateful to wild beasts and birds for ever.] And let the copies be posted in conspicuous places throughout the kingdom and let all the Judahites be ready against this day, to fight against their enemies.
8:14 So the posts (couriers) that rode upon mules and camels went out, being hastened and pressed on by the king's commandment. And the decree was given at Shushan the palace.
8:15 And Mordecai went out from the presence of the king in royal apparel of blue and white, and with a great crown of gold, and with a garment of fine linen and purple: and the city of Shushan rejoiced and was glad.
Proverbs 29:12 If a ruler hearken to lies, all his servants are wicked.
8:16 The Judahites had light, and gladness, and joy, and honour.
Psalm 97:11 Light is sown for the righteous, and gladness for the upright in heart.
8:17 And in every province, and in every city, whithersoever the king's commandment and his decree came, the Judahites had joy and gladness, a feast and a good day. And many of the people of the land became Judahites; for the fear of the Judahites fell upon them.
Many of the people of the land would have been Adamites. Those of the Genesis chapter 10 nations of Adam. The Israelites were given the law and practiced it. Adamites and Israelites were permitted to intermarry because they were the same race. White. The Persians were for the most part still white at the time. These and the other white nations were acceptable to conform to Yahweh's laws.
Genesis 3:22 And Yahweh God said, Behold, the man (Adam) is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever:
The Bible, God's laws, promises and covenants were made to and for His people. The white Adamic race.
H3054 is a verb, meaning to become. This is not a genetic reference.
The Hebrew shows (mith'yahadiym). Professing ppr. Openly declaring; avowing; acknowledging.
Professed to be.
A few versions use the word pretended to be Judahites for fear.
And in all peoples, cities, and provinces, whithersoever the king's commandments came, there was wonderful rejoicing, feasts and banquets, and keeping holy day: insomuch that many of other nations, joined themselves to their worship and ceremonies. For a great dread of the name of the Judahites had fallen upon all.
Or were proselyted, as the Aramaic Targums interpret it; they embraced the Judahite religion, and submitted to the rites and ceremonies of it; were circumcised, as in the Septuagint version.
Only Israelites were circumcised, at least until 125 BC when John Hyrcanus started circumcising Edomite Jews.
This did not make Edomite Jews, or anyone, into Israelites.
Unless you are a literal descendant of Jacob you cannot become an Israelite.
In 8:17, many of the pagan Israelites converted to The Way (OT Christianity). And many of the non-Israelites said they were Judahites because of fear.
Just like in today's “churches”, they teach you can become a child of God's by “just believing” and “accepting Him”. Scripture does not teach this!
A Christian can only be one who is of the race of Adam (white), and lives according to The Way. That means knowing your identity, knowing your history and heritage, knowing and following your God, Yahweh. And calling upon the name of His Son Yahshua, our Kinsman Redeemer.
Esther 9:1 Now in the twelfth month, that is, the month Adar, on the thirteenth day of the same, when the king's commandment and his decree drew near to be put in execution, in the day that the enemies of the Judahites hoped to have power over them, (though it was turned to the contrary, that the Judahites had rule over them that hated them;)
2Samuel 22:41 You hast also given me the necks of mine enemies, that I might destroy them that hate me.
9:2 The Judahites gathered themselves together in their cities throughout all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes), to lay hand on such as sought their hurt: and no man could withstand them; for the fear of them fell upon all people.
9:3 And all the rulers of the provinces, and the lieutenants, and the deputies, and officers of the king, helped the Judahites; because the fear of Mordecai fell upon them.
9:4 For Mordecai was great in the king's house, and his fame went out throughout all the provinces: for this man Mordecai waxed greater and greater.
The same happened to Joseph and Daniel. They followed Yahweh's laws and commandments while in captivity and did not falter, and were elevated.
9:5 Thus the Judahites smote all their enemies with the stroke of the sword, and slaughter, and destruction, and did what they would unto those that hated them.
9:6 And in Shushan the palace the Judahites slew and destroyed five hundred men.
9:7 And Parshandatha, and Dalphon, and Aspatha,
9:8 And Poratha, and Adalia, and Aridatha,
9:9 And Parmashta, and Arisai, and Aridai, and Vajezatha,
9:10 The ten sons of Haman the son of Hammedatha, the enemy of the Judahites, slew they; but on the spoil laid they not their hand.
9:11 On that day the number of those that were slain in Shushan the palace was brought before the king.
9:12 And the king said unto Esther the queen, The Judahites have slain and destroyed five hundred men in Shushan the palace, and the ten sons of Haman; what have they done in the rest of the king's provinces? now what is your petition? and it shall be granted you: or what is your request further? and it shall be done.
9:13 Then said Esther, If it please the king, let it be granted to the Judahites which are in Shushan to do to morrow also according unto this day's decree, and let Haman's ten sons be hanged upon the gallows.
9:14 And the king commanded it so to be done: and the decree was given at Shushan; and they hanged Haman's ten sons.
9:15 For the Judahites that were in Shushan gathered themselves together on the fourteenth day also of the month Adar, and slew three hundred men at Shushan; but on the prey they laid not their hand.
9:16 But the other Judahites that were in the king's provinces gathered themselves together, and stood for their lives, and had rest from their enemies, and slew of their foes seventy and five thousand, but they laid not their hands on the prey,
9:17 On the thirteenth day of the month Adar; and on the fourteenth day of the same rested they, and made it a day of feasting and gladness.
9:18 But the Judahites that were at Shushan assembled together on the thirteenth day thereof, and on the fourteenth thereof; and on the fifteenth day of the same they rested, and made it a day of feasting and gladness.
9:19 Therefore the Judahites of the villages, that dwelt in the unwalled towns, made the fourteenth day of the month Adar a day of gladness and feasting, and a good day, and of sending portions one to another.
9:20 And Mordecai wrote these things, and sent letters unto all the Judahites that were in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes), both nigh and far,
9:21 To stablish this among them, that they should keep the fourteenth day of the month Adar, and the fifteenth day of the same, yearly,
9:22 As the days wherein the Judahites rested from their enemies, and the month which was turned unto them from sorrow to joy, and from mourning into a good day: that they should make them days of feasting and joy, and of sending portions one to another, and gifts to the poor.
9:23 And the Judahites undertook to do as they had begun, and as Mordecai had written unto them;
9:24 Because Haman the son of Hammedatha, the Agagite, the enemy of all the Judahites, had devised against the Judahites to destroy them, and had cast Pur, that is, the lot, to consume them, and to destroy them;
9:25 But when Esther came before the king, he commanded by letters that his wicked device, which he devised against the Judahites, should return upon his own head, and that he and his sons should be hanged on the gallows.
9:26 Wherefore they called these days Purim after the name of Pur. Therefore for all the words of this letter, and of that which they had seen concerning this matter, and which had come unto them,
9:27 The Judahites ordained, and took upon them, and upon their seed (descendants), and upon all such as joined themselves unto them, so as it should not fail, that they would keep these two days according to their writing, and according to their appointed time every year;
9:28 And that these days should be remembered and kept throughout every generation, every family, every province, and every city; and that these days of Purim should not fail from among the Judahites, nor the memorial of them perish from their seed.
9:29 Then Esther the queen, the daughter of Abihail, and Mordecai the Judahite, wrote with all authority, to confirm this second letter of Purim.
9:30 And he sent the letters unto all the Judahites, to the hundred twenty and seven provinces of the kingdom of Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes), with words of peace and truth,
9:31 To confirm these days of Purim in their times appointed, according as Mordecai the Judahite and Esther the queen had enjoined them, and as they had decreed for themselves and for their seed, the matters of the fastings and their cry.
9:32 And the decree of Esther confirmed these matters of Purim; and it was written in the book.
Esther 10:1 And the king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes) laid a tribute upon the land, and upon the isles of the sea.
10:2 And all the acts of his power and of his might, and the declaration of the greatness of Mordecai, whereunto the king advanced him, are they not written in the book of the chronicles (words of the days) of the kings of Media and Persia?
10:3 For Mordecai the Judahite was next unto king Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes), and great among the Judahites, and accepted of the multitude of his brethren, seeking the wealth of his people, and speaking peace to all his seed.
And Mordecai said, These things have been done of God. For I remember the dream which I had concerning these matters: for not one particular of them has failed. There was the little fountain which became a river, and there was light, and the sun and much water. The river is Esther, whom the king married, and made queen. And the two serpents are I and Haman. And the nations are those nations that combined to destroy the name of the Judahites. But as for my nation, this is Israel, even they that cried to God and were delivered: for Yahweh delivered His people. And Yahweh rescued us out of all these calamities; and God wrought such signs and great wonders as have not been done among the nations. Therefore did he ordain two lots. One for the people of God, and one for all the other nations. And these two lots came for an appointed season, and for a day of judgment, before God, and for all the nations. And God remembered his people, and vindicated His inheritance. And they shall observe these days in the month Adar, on the fourteenth and on the fifteenth day of the month, with an assembly, and joy and gladness before God, throughout the generations for ever among His people Israel.
In the fourth year of the reign of Ptolemeus and Cleopatra, Dositheus, who said he was a priest and Levite, and Ptolemeus his son, brought this epistle of Phurim, which they said was the same, and that Lysimachus the son of Ptolemeus, that was in Jerusalem, had interpreted it.
The 14th of Adar, observed in celebration of the deliverance of the Judahites from massacre by Haman.
It must be noted that some scholars, including Wesley Swift and Bertrand Comparet, do not accept Esther as scripture. They argue that it is the only book of the OT not found among the Dead Sea Scrolls.
They also argue that God or Lord are not mentioned. But they are in the apocrypha, in the later addition in the Alexandrian. There are other disputable reasons which include the number of provinces of the Persian empire as 20 instead of 127. The empire was vast and likely had more than 20 provinces. And that the laws of the Medes and Persians do not allow alterations. This is a good point, but the king was fooled by Haman. And the names are similar to the Babylonian and Persian gods. Hadassah (Hadashati), Esther (Ishtar), Mordecai (Marduk), Haman, (Humman), Vashti (a Persian goddess), Zeresh (Kirisha).
While the possibility that Esther is just a fable is debatable, the theme and message are in alignment with scripture. And Mordecai is found in Ezra and Nehemiah.
The arguments are:
Esther 1:1 Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus, (this is Ahasuerus which reigned, from India even unto Ethiopia, over an hundred and seven and twenty provinces:)
History records only 20.
Esther 1:11 To bring Vashti the queen before the king with the crown royal, to shew the people and the princes her beauty: for she was fair to look on.
The King would never have commanded his Queen to parade her physical attributes before 'the people'. This incident, coming in the very beginning of the plot, serves to emphasize the strong sexual overtones of this book.
Esther 1:19 If it please the king, let there go a royal commandment from him, and let it be written among the laws of the Persians and the Medes, that it be not altered, That Vashti come no more before king Ahasuerus; and let the king give her royal estate unto another that is better than she.
20 And when the king's decree which he shall make shall be published throughout all his empire, (for it is great,) all the wives shall give to their husbands honour, both to great and small.
21 And the saying pleased the king and the princes; and the king did according to the word of Memucan:
22 For he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should bear rule in his own house, and that it should be published according to the language of every people.
Issuing the King's decree in the various languages of the different provinces was contrary to Persian custom.
Esther 2:1 After these things, when the wrath of king Ahasuerus was appeased, he remembered Vashti, and what she had done, and what was decreed against her.
2 Then said the king's servants that ministered unto him, Let there be fair young virgins sought for the king:
3 And let the king appoint officers in all the provinces of his kingdom, that they may gather together all the fair young virgins unto Shushan the palace, to the house of the women, unto the custody of Hege the king's chamberlain, keeper of the women; and let their things for purification be given them:
4 And let the maiden which pleaseth the king be queen instead of Vashti. And the thing pleased the king; and he did so.
The historian, Herodotus, reports that Persian law limited the King to selecting a Queen from among the daughters of the seven most noble Persian families. Also, their tradition indicates that during that period, the Nobles would have chosen the King's wife for him. Therefore, the idea of the King choosing a Queen from among the fairest virgins in the Empire is unthinkable.
Esther 2:10 Esther had not shewed her people nor her kindred: for Mordecai had charged her that she should not shew it.
2:20 Esther had not yet shewed her kindred nor her people; as Mordecai had charged her: for Esther did the commandment of Mordecai, like as when she was brought up with him.
Although raised as the daughter of Mordecai who had revealed he was a Judaean, Esther was able to conceal the fact of her race. Does that seem logical?
It would not have been hard, since the Israelites and the Persians were white people.
Esther 2:11 And Mordecai walked every day before the court of the women's house, to know how Esther did, and what should become of her.
Mordecai's ability to visit the harem daily is contrary to all oriental custom both ancient and modern.
Esther 3:2 And all the king's servants, that were in the king's gate, bowed, and reverenced Haman: for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not, nor did him reverence.
5:9 Then went Haman forth that day joyful and with a glad heart: but when Haman saw Mordecai in the king's gate, that he stood not up, nor moved for him, he was full of indignation against Mordecai. Haman's long toleration of Mordecai's insults is, to say the least, un-usual for oriental conduct, either then or now.
Esther 3:12 Then were the king's scribes called on the thirteenth day of the first month, and there was written according to all that Haman had commanded unto the king's lieutenants, and to the governors that were over every province, and to the rulers of every people of every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language; in the name of king Ahasuerus was it written, and sealed with the king's ring.
3:15 The posts went out, being hastened by the king's commandment, and the decree was given in Shushan the palace. And the king and Haman sat down to drink; but the city Shushan was perplexed. The decree against the Judaeans was written on 1/13 and rushed to the provinces by royal command.
It stated that the Judaeans were to be slaughtered and their possessions looted on the 13th day of the twelfth month (Es 3:13). It was very considerate of Haman to give the Judaeans such advance notice of his intentions toward them.
Esther 7:3 Then Esther the queen answered and said, If I have found favour in your sight, O king, and if it please the king, let my life be given me at my petition, and my people at my request:
4 For we are sold, I and my people, to be destroyed, to be slain, and to perish. But if we had been sold for bondmen and bondwomen, I had held my tongue, although the enemy could not countervail the king's damage.
At her second feast, Esther reveals she is a Judahite and that her people have been ordered killed. Although Ahasuerus, the King, had given Haman permission to move against the Judaeans (Es 3:8-11) he is now astonished to hear about it. The King must have been quite an actor, and to prove it, he had Haman hung (7:9-10).
Daniel 6:8 Now, O king, establish the decree, and sign the writing, that it be not changed, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not.
Esther 8:5 And said, If it please the king, and if I have found favour in his sight, and the thing seem right before the king, and I be pleasing in his eyes, let it be written to reverse the letters devised by Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, which he wrote to destroy the Jews which are in all the king's provinces:
How is it then that Esther could say, 'let it be written to reverse the letters'? Then...
Esther 8:11 Wherein the king granted the Judaeans which were in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all the power of the people and province that would assault them, both little ones and women, and to take the spoil of them for a prey,
And a second day of slaughter (Es 9:12-15).
Now, if the Judaeans slew 800 people in and around the palace, that number had to include persons from among the King's own family.
This great slaughter of the Judaeans enemies is celebrated each year as the 'Feast of Purim' by Judaism.
This would only make sense to continue the lies that the Jews are Israel.
ESTHER – CHURCH DOCTRINE VS. SCRIPTURE
Below are 3 sources of what the modern churches preach today about the book of Esther.
The purpose is to expose the apostasy and perversion of the scriptures, and to educate our people about the truth of our heritage. That we, the anglo-saxon race who are the descendants of ancient Israel, are the people of Abraham's seed and therefore the heirs of the promises of Yahweh. Not the Jews who distort and pervert the scriptures and teach the 'traditions of men'.
The genre of the book of Esther is Narrative History. Its author is anonymous however; some believe Mordecai, (Esther’s cousin and guardian), wrote it. It was written approximately 470 B.C. in Persia. Esther became queen in 479 B.C. The key personalities are Esther, Mordecai, King Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes) (or Xerxes), and Haman.
Its purpose is to demonstrate God’s love and sovereignty in all circumstances. It is a post-exile story about Jews who stayed behind after most returned to Jerusalem after captivity. The Jews are not Israel. They are of Cain and Esau. They stated to Christ that in John 8:33 They were never in bondage to any man: how sayest you, Ye shall be made free? Christ caught them in their own lie. If only the world would see through their deceit as well! Israel, who are of Jacob, the father of the white nations of the twelve tribes, are the people of Yahweh. We have been in bondage in Egypt, Assyria and Babylon.
Babylon was conquered by Persia and Esther miraculously becomes the queen of the land, and saves her people.
• In chapter 1-2, Esther becomes the queen to Ahasuerus (Artaxerxes) of Persia. She was personally chosen by the King. “The king loved Esther more than all the women, and she found favor and kindness with him” (2:17), probably because of her beauty and intelligence. Because she was a pure beautiful white woman.
• Chapters 3-4, Mordecai (Esther’s guardian) refused to bow down and pay homage to Haman a high official of the king. Haman becomes infuriated and plots to destroy all the Jews (Judahites) in the kingdom because of his pride. Mordecai hears of the plot and reports it to his Esther. “For if you remain silent at this time, relief and deliverance will arise for the Jews (Judahites) from another place and you and your father’s house will perish. And who knows whether you have not attained royalty for such a time as this?” (4:14). Again, the Jews are NOT Israel. Haman was a Canaanite Jew. His father was an Agagite, an Amalekite, which is a Canaanite. Esther and her people were Judahites from the house of Judah. The southern kingdom of Israel.
• From chapters 5-10, Esther outwits Haman and takes her petition to the king and pleas for the protection of her Jewish (Judahite) people from Haman’s wicked stratagem. The king out of anger, has Haman hung on the gallows, which he had built to destroy all the Jews (Judahites). Esther’s faith and courage saves her people.
Summary of the Book of Esther
Author and Date
Although we do not know who wrote the book of Esther, from internal evidence it is possible to make some inferences about the author and the date of composition. It is clear that the author was a Jew (Judahite), both from his emphasis on the origin of a Jewish (Judahite) festival and from the Jewish (Judahites) nationalism that permeates the story. The author's knowledge of Persian customs, the setting of the story in the city of Susa and the absence of any reference to conditions or circumstances in the land of Judah suggest that he was a resident of a Persian city. The earliest date for the book would be shortly after the events narrated, i.e., c. 460 b.c. (before Ezra's return to Jerusalem;8:12). Internal evidence also suggests that the festival of Purim had been observed for some time prior to the actual writing of the book (9:19) and that Xerxes had already died (10:2). Several scholars have dated the book later than 330 b.c.; the absence of Greek words and the style of the author's Hebrew dialect, however, suggest that the book must have been written before the Persian empire fell to Greece in 331.
Purpose, Themes and Literary Features
The author's central purpose was to record the institution of the annual festival of Purim and to keep alive for later generations the memory of the great deliverance of the Jewish (Judahite) people during the reign of Xerxes (Artaxerxes). The book accounts for both the initiation of that observance and the obligation for its perpetual commemoration (3:7; 9:26-32).
Throughout much of the story the author calls to mind the ongoing conflict between Israel and the Amalekites (2:5; 3:1-6; 9:5-10), a conflict that began during the exodus (Ex 17:8-16; Dt 25:17-19) and continued through Israel's history (1Sa 15; 1Ch 4:43; and, of course, Esther). This commentator gets it right, Israel verse Amalekites! Haman was an Amalekite, which is a Canaanite, a Jew. As the first to attack Israel after their deliverance from Egypt, the Amalekites were viewed -- and the author of Esther views them -- as the epitome of all the powers of the world arrayed against God's people ( Nu 24:20; 1Sa 15:2-3; 28:18). Now that Israel has been released from captivity, Haman's edict is the final major effort in the OT period to destroy them.
Closely associated with the conflict with the Amalekites is the rest that is promised to the people of God (see Dt 25:19). With Haman's defeat the Jews enjoy rest from their enemies (9:16,22). How can the Jews rest from defeat if it was the Jews that were defeated? Because Haman was the Jew. The Jews are not Israel. They are impersonators of Israel. Wake up!
The author also draws upon the remnant motif that recurs throughout the Bible (natural disasters, disease, warfare or other calamities threaten God's people; those who survive constitute a remnant). Events in the Persian city of Susa threatened the continuity of God's purposes in redemptive history. The future existence of God's chosen people, and ultimately the appearance of the Redeemer-Messiah, were jeopardized by Haman's edict to destroy the Jews (Judahites). Haman was the Jew.
Feasting is another prominent theme in Esther, as shown in the outline below. Banquets provide the setting for important plot developments. There are ten banquets: (1) 1:3-4, (2) 1:5-8, (3) 1:9, (4) 2:18, (5) 3:15, (6) 5:5-6, (7) 7:1-10, (8) 8:17, (9) 9:17, (10) 9:18. The three pairs of banquets that mark the beginning, middle and end of the story are particularly prominent: the two banquets given by Xerxes (Artaxerxes), the two prepared by Esther and the double celebration of Purim.
Recording duplications appears to be one of the favorite compositional techniques of the writer. In addition to the three groups of banquets that come in pairs there are two lists of the king's servants (1:10,14), two reports that Esther concealed her identity (2:10,20), two gatherings of women (2:8,19), two fasts (4:3,16), two consultations of Haman with his wife and friends (5:14; 6:13), two unscheduled appearances of Esther before the king (5:2; 8:3), two investitures for Mordecai (6:10-11; 8:15), two coverings of Haman's face (6:12; 7:8), two royal edicts (3:12-15; 8:1-14), two references to the subsiding of the king's anger (2:1; 7:10), two references to the irrevocability of the Persian laws (1:19; 8:8), two days for the Jews (Judahites) to take vengeance (9:5-12,13-15) and two letters instituting the commemoration of Purim (9:20-28,29-32).
An outstanding feature of this book -- one that has given rise to considerable discussion -- is the complete absence of any explicit reference to God, worship, prayer, or sacrifice. This is false. The apocrypha has the rest of Esther and has God, Yahweh (wrongly Lord) and prayer and fasting. The apocrypha is discarded because it further shows that the Jews are not Israel. This "secularity" has produced many detractors who have judged the book to be of little religious value. However, it appears that the author has deliberately refrained from mentioning God or any religious activity as a literary device to heighten the fact that it is God who controls and directs all the seemingly insignificant coincidences (6:1) that make up the plot and issue in deliverance for the Jews (Judahites). Read the book of Obadiah for full detail of Jew deliverance! Read John chapter 8 and see what Christ says to the Jews! God's sovereign rule is assumed at every point (4:12-16), an assumption made all the more effective by the total absence of reference to him. It becomes clear to the careful reader that Israel's Great King exercises his providential and sovereign control over all the vicissitudes of his beleagured covenant people. His covenant people are the seed of Jacob, not Esau!
Who wrote the book?
The unknown author of the book of Esther was most likely a Jew (Judahite)(Judahite)(Judahite)! very familiar with the royal Persian court. The detailed descriptions of court life and traditions, as well as the events that occurred in the book, point to an eyewitness author. Because his perspective was pro-Jewish, scholars believe he was a Jew writing for the remnant that had returned to Judah under Zerubbabel. People, the Jews are descendants of Cain and Esau. They are Israel's enemy. Only Israelites wrote the scriptures. Some have suggested Mordecai himself was the author, though the accolades for him found in the text suggest that another person, perhaps one of his younger contemporaries, was the author.
The book is named for the “star” of the story, a young Jewish (Judahite) girl named Hadassah who was taken from her guardian, Mordecai, and forced to compete for the affection of the king. This unlikely contestant for a beauty pageant was crowned queen of Persia and renamed Esther, meaning “star.”
Where are we?
The events in the book of Esther occurred from 483 BC to 473 BC, during the first half of the reign of King Xerxes (Artaxerxes), who chose Esther as his queen. During this time period, the first remnant of Jews (Judahites) who had returned to Judah were struggling to reestablish temple worship according to the Law of Moses. But Esther and Mordecai, along with many other Jews (Judahites), had chosen not to make the trek back to Judah. They seemed content to stay in Susa, the capital city of Persia, in which the story is set.
The book was written no earlier than 470 BC and probably no later than 424 BC, during the reign of Xerxes’ son Artaxerxes.
Why is Esther so important?
Esther is the only book in the Bible not to mention the name of God. It does in the rest of Esther found in the apocrypha. But that is not to say that God was absent. His presence permeates much of the story, as though He were behind the scenes coordinating “coincidences” and circumstances to make His will happen.
Much like the book of Ruth, this book stands as one of the most skillfully written biblical books. Using eight feasts to systematically build and resolve suspense, the author constructed the story chiastically—using a Hebrew literary device in which events mirror each other inversely. Early listeners to the story would have recognized significant events and followed the rising tension with understanding.
Haman, the king’s evil second-in-command, was a descendant of Agag, king of the Amalekites, who were ancient enemies of God’s people (Numbers 24:7; 1 Samuel 15:8). Why doesn't this commentator finish the identification of the Amalekites? They were Canaanite Jews. He cast the lot, called “pur,” in order to determine the day that the Jews (Judahites) would be exterminated (Esther 3:7–9). The feast of Purim, still celebrated by Jews (Judahites) today, commemorates the Jews’(Judahite's) deliverance from Haman’s plot (9:24–32). Since Haman was a Jew, why would he exterminate his people? Wake up people, the deception that the Jews are Israel is right in front of your eyes!
What's the big idea?
While the primary purpose of the book of Esther was to relate the dramatic origins of the feast of Purim, a greater theme shines through the story. The sovereignty and faithfulness of God permeate each scene. Nothing is truly coincidental, the book of Esther says to us. God’s sovereignty is best summarized in Mordecai’s exhortation to Esther: “And who knows whether you have not attained royalty for such a time as this?” (Esther 4:14).
When events seemed out of control to Esther and Mordecai, when the king dictated ruin for their people, when evil was poised to triumph . . . God was at work. He worked through their dark days (Esther was taken to the harem [2:1–16]), their faithful obedience (Esther risked her life before the king [5:1–3]), and their victories (Esther revealed Haman’s plot and the Jews’ (Judahite's) destruction of their enemies [7–9]). This message is clear: God is sovereign even when life doesn’t make sense.
God is also the great Promise Keeper. Mordecai said to Esther: “If you remain silent at this time, relief and deliverance will arise for the Jews (Judahites) from another place and you and your father’s house will perish” (Esther 4:14). Mordecai’s words reflected his faith that God would honor His eternal covenant with Abraham and David. Which is to the seed of Jacob (father of the Israelites), not to Esau, (father of the Edomite Jews).
How do I apply this?
Life can be hard. Difficult times happen, and pain cannot be avoided. When life doesn’t make sense, do you turn to God or away from Him? Let the book of Esther encourage you that God is always present. Jesus called us “friends” ( John 15:15), and the Spirit is our “Helper” (14:26). Trust and obey, as Esther did. And watch God silently weave all events for His glory . . . and for our good. And pray that God gives you understanding of the deception of our enemies, the Jews!