CASTING OF LOTS
Psalm 133:1 A Song of degrees of David. Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity!
Outside of race mixing, division is Satan's greatest tool.
Casting lots were often done by using bits of wood, dice, or smooth stones.
It will be evident that casting lots was used to ask and include Yahweh in the making of righteous decisions when there was a division among brethren. David did this as well as others like Gideon, and even Peter in the New Testament.
There is no reason to believe that this method of asking Yahweh for guidance should not be used. However, it must be done righteously. It is only for resolving differences and divisions among brethren. It also must be understood that Yahweh may not want to give an answer, or an answer at that time. Yahweh may want to give them more time to work things out on their own.
H1486 gôrâl gôrâl go-rawl', go-ral'
From an unused root meaning to be rough (as stone); properly a pebble, that is, a lot (small stones being used for that purpose); figuratively a portion or destiny (as if determined by lot): - lot.
H2256 chebel chêbel kheh'-bel, khay'-bel
From H2254 to bind; specifically by a pledge; a rope (as twisted), especially a measuring line; by implication a district or inheritance (as measured); or a noose (as of cords); figuratively a company (as if tied together); also a throe (especially of parturition); also ruin: - band, coast, company, cord, country, destruction, line, lot, pain, pang, portion, region, rope, snare, sorrow, tackling.
H5307 nâphal naw-fal'
A primitive root; to fall, in a great variety of applications (intransitively or causatively, literally or figuratively): - be accepted, cast (down, self, [lots], out), cease, die, divide (by lot), (let) fail, (cause to, let, make, ready to) fall (away, down, -en, -ing), fell (-ing), fugitive, have [inheritance], inferior, be judged [by mistake for H6419 to judge (officially or mentally); by extension to intercede, pray:], lay (along), (cause to) lie down, light (down), be (X hast) lost, lying, overthrow, overwhelm, perish, present (-ed, -ing), (make to) rot, slay, smite out, X surely, throw down.
Let us now observe and examine the instances of 'casting lots'.
The day of Atonement
Leviticus 16:1 And Yahweh spake unto Moses after the death of the two sons of Aaron, when they offered before Yahweh, and died;
16:2 And Yahweh said unto Moses, Speak unto Aaron your brother, that he come not at all times into the holy place within the vail before the mercy seat (lid), which is upon the ark; that he die not: for I will appear in the cloud upon the mercy seat.
3Maccabees 1:11 And when they told him that this was not permissible, none of the nation, no, nor even the priests in general, but only the supreme high priest of all, and he only once in a year, being allowed to go in, he would by no means give way.
16:3 Thus shall Aaron come into the holy place: with a young bullock for a sin offering, and a ram for a burnt offering.
16:4 He shall put on the holy linen coat, and he shall have the linen breeches upon his flesh, and shall be girded with a linen girdle, and with the linen mitre shall he be attired: these are holy garments; therefore shall he wash his flesh in water, and so put them on.
16:5 And he shall take of the congregation of the children of Israel two kids of the goats for a sin offering, and one ram for a burnt offering.
16:6 And Aaron shall offer his bullock of the sin offering, which is for himself, and make an atonement for himself, and for his house.
16:7 And he shall take the two goats, and present them before Yahweh at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
Leviticus 16:8 And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats; one lot (H1486-portion) for Yahweh, and the other lot (H1486-portion) for the scapegoat.
Leviticus 16:10 But the goat, on which the lot (H1486-portion or destiny) fell to be the scapegoat, shall be presented alive before Yahweh, to make an atonement with him, and to let him go for a scapegoat into the wilderness.
Azazel (H5799), goat of departure. Also the name of one of the many fallen angels to whom sin was imputed.
Enoch 8:1 And Azazel taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways.
9:6 Thou seest what Azazel hath done, who hath taught all unrighteousness on earth and revealed the eternal secrets which were (preserved) in heaven, which men were striving to learn:
10:4 And again Yahweh said to Raphael: 'Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening in the desert, which is in Dudael, and cast him therein. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may not see light. And on the day of the great judgment he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. And the whole earth has been corrupted through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin.'
13: 1 And Enoch went and said: 'Azazel, thou shalt have no peace: a severe sentence has gone forth against thee to put thee in bonds: And thou shalt not have toleration nor request granted to thee, because of the unrighteousness which thou hast taught, and because of all the works of godlessness and unrighteousness and sin which thou hast shown to men.'
54:1 And I looked and turned to another part of the earth, and saw there a deep valley with burning fire. And they brought the kings and the mighty, and began to cast them into this deep valley. And there mine eyes saw how they made these their instruments, iron chains of immeasurable weight. And I asked the angel of peace who went with me, saying: ' For whom are these chains being prepared ? ' And he said unto me: ' These are being prepared for the hosts of Azazel, so that they may take them and cast them into the abyss of complete condemnation, and they shall cover their jaws with rough stones as Yahweh of Spirits commanded. And Michael, and Gabriel, and Raphael, and Phanuel shall take hold of them on that great day, and cast them on that day into the burning furnace, that Yahweh of Spirits may take vengeance on them for their unrighteousness in becoming subject to Satan and leading astray those who dwell on the earth.'
55:3 When I have desired to take hold of them by the hand of the angels on the day of tribulation and pain because of this, I will cause My chastisement and My wrath to abide upon them, saith God, Yahweh of Spirits. Ye mighty kings who dwell on the earth, ye shall have to behold Mine Elect One, how He sits on the throne of glory and judges Azazel, and all his associates, and all his hosts in the name of Yahweh of Spirits.'
The scapegoat was laid with the sins of the people and cast out into the wilderness. By lot, Yahweh chose which goat was for the atonement of the people, and which one was to be cast out.
Numbers 26:52 And Yahweh spake unto Moses, saying,
26:53 Unto these the land shall be divided for an inheritance according to the number of names.
26:54 To many you shalt give the more inheritance, and to few you shalt give the less inheritance: to every one shall his inheritance be given according to those that were numbered of him.
Numbers 26:55 Notwithstanding the land shall be divided by lot (H1486-portion): according to the names of the tribes of their fathers they shall inherit.
Numbers 26:56 According to the lot (H1486-portion) shall the possession thereof be divided between many and few.
Numbers 33:54 And ye shall divide the land by lot (H1486-portion) for an inheritance among your families: and to the more ye shall give the more inheritance, and to the fewer ye shall give the less inheritance: every man's inheritance shall be in the place where his lot (H1486-portion) falleth; according to the tribes of your fathers ye shall inherit.
Numbers 34:13 And Moses commanded the children of Israel, saying, This is the land which ye shall inherit by lot (H1486-portion or destiny), which Yahweh commanded to give unto the nine tribes, and to the half tribe:
Numbers 36:2 And they said, Yahweh commanded my lord to give the land for an inheritance by lot (H1486-portion) to the children of Israel: and my lord was commanded by Yahweh to give the inheritance of Zelophehad our brother unto his daughters.
Numbers 36:3 And if they be married to any of the sons of the other tribes of the children of Israel, then shall their inheritance be taken from the inheritance of our fathers, and shall be put to the inheritance of the tribe whereunto they are received: so shall it be taken from the lot (H1486-portion) of our inheritance.
Deuteronomy 32:9 For Yahweh's portion is His people; Jacob is the lot (H2256-company, measuring line) of His inheritance.
The Septuagint reads: 9 And His people Jacob became the portion of Yahweh, Israel was the line of His inheritance.
Exodus 19:5 Now therefore, if ye will obey My voice indeed, and keep My covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto Me above all people: for all the earth is Mine:
Yahweh's inheritance is His people. The measuring line is those of the descendants of Jacob.
In Joshua 7, Achan took of the accursed thing. This was everything in Jericho that was devoted to utter destruction, the people, the animals and the things, everything.
Joshua 7:14 In the morning therefore ye shall be brought according to your tribes: and it shall be, that the tribe which Yahweh taketh (by lot) shall come according to the families thereof; and the family which Yahweh shall take (by lot) shall come by households; and the household which Yahweh shall take (by lot) shall come man by man.
7:15 And it shall be, that he that is taken (by lot) with the accursed thing shall be burnt (destroyed utterly) with fire, he and all that he hath: because he hath transgressed the covenant of Yahweh, and because he hath wrought folly (a disgraceful act) in Israel.
7:16 So Joshua rose up early in the morning, and brought Israel by their tribes; and the tribe of Judah was taken:
Taken is H3920 lakad, which also means taken by lot. Yahweh controlled the casting of the lot.
7:17 And he brought the family of Judah; and he took (by lot) the family of the Zarhites: and he brought the family of the Zarhites man by man; and Zabdi was taken (by lot):
7:18 And he brought his household man by man; and Achan, the son of Carmi, the son of Zabdi, the son of Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, was taken (by lot).
7:19 And Joshua said unto Achan, My son, give, I pray you, glory to Yahweh God of Israel, and make confession unto Him; and tell me now what you hast done; hide it not from me.
7:20 And Achan answered Joshua, and said, Indeed I have sinned against Yahweh God of Israel, and thus and thus have I done:
7:21 When I saw among the spoils a goodly Babylonish garment (mantle, cloak), and two hundred shekels of silver, and a wedge of gold of fifty shekels weight, then I coveted them, and took them; and, behold, they are hid in the earth (ground) in the midst of my tent, and the silver under it.
7:22 So Joshua sent messengers, and they ran unto the tent; and, behold, it was hid in his tent, and the silver under it.
7:23 And they took them out of the midst of the tent, and brought them unto Joshua, and unto all the children of Israel, and laid them out before Yahweh.
7:24 And Joshua, and all Israel with him, took Achan the son of Zerah, and the silver, and the garment, and the wedge of gold, and his sons, and his daughters, and his oxen, and his asses, and his sheep, and his tent, and all that he had: and they brought them unto the valley of Achor.
7:25 And Joshua said, Why hast you troubled us? Yahweh shall trouble you this day. And all Israel stoned him with stones, and burned them with fire, after they had stoned them with stones.
7:26 And they raised over him a great heap of stones unto this day. So Yahweh turned from the fierceness (burning) of His anger. Wherefore the name of that place was called, The valley of Achor, unto this day.
Trouble is H5916 akar, to trouble, stir up, disturb, afflict.
Achor is H5911 akor. The valley of troubles.
The sin of Achan and his family disturbed the peace and blessings of Yahweh towards the nation. We, as members of the body, must all follow The Way, otherwise the body becomes corrupt. Hence, accursed, devoted to utter destruction.
The name Achan is H5912 akan, meaning 'troubler'.
Note: When we sin and take of accursed things we wonder why we have aches and pains!
Joshua 13:6 All the inhabitants of the hill country from Lebanon unto Misrephothmaim, and all the Sidonians, them will I drive out from before the children of Israel: only divide you it by lot (H5307-inheritance) unto the Israelites for an inheritance (possession), as I have commanded you.
13:7 Now therefore divide this land for an inheritance unto the nine tribes, and the half tribe of Manasseh,
13:8 With whom the Reubenites and the Gadites have received their inheritance, which Moses gave them, beyond Jordan eastward, even as Moses the servant of Yahweh gave them; (Num 32:33)
Joshua 14:2 By lot (H1486-portion) was their inheritance (possession), as Yahweh commanded by the hand of Moses, for the nine tribes, and for the half tribe.
Joshua 15:1 This then was the lot (H1486-portion) of the tribe of the children of Judah by their families; even to the border of Edom the wilderness of Zin southward was the uttermost part of the south coast.
Joshua 16:1 And the lot (H1486-portion) of the children of Joseph fell from Jordan by Jericho, unto the water of Jericho on the east, to the wilderness that goeth up from Jericho throughout mount Bethel,
Joshua 17:1 There was also a lot (H1486-portion) for the tribe of Manasseh; for he was the firstborn of Joseph; to wit, for Machir the firstborn of Manasseh, the father of Gilead: because he was a man of war, therefore he had Gilead and Bashan.
Assigning the land
The land of Benjamin
Joshua 18:1 And the whole congregation of the children of Israel assembled together at Shiloh, and set up the tabernacle of the congregation there. And the land was subdued before them.
18:2 And there remained among the children of Israel seven tribes, which had not yet received their inheritance.
18:3 And Joshua said unto the children of Israel, How long are ye slack to go to possess the land, which Yahweh God of your fathers hath given you? (Judges 18:9)
18:4 Give out from among you three men for each tribe: and I will send them, and they shall rise, and go through the land, and describe it according to the inheritance of them; and they shall come again to me.
18:5 And they shall divide it into seven parts: Judah shall abide in their coast on the south, and the house of Joseph shall abide in their coasts on the north.
Joshua 18:6 Ye shall therefore describe the land into seven parts, and bring the description hither to me, that I may cast lots (H1486-portion or destiny) for you here before Yahweh our God.
18:7 But the Levites have no part among you; for the priesthood of Yahweh is their inheritance: and Gad, and Reuben, and half the tribe of Manasseh, have received their inheritance beyond Jordan on the east, which Moses the servant of Yahweh gave them.
Joshua 18:8 And the men arose, and went away: and Joshua charged them that went to describe the land, saying, Go and walk through the land, and describe it, and come again to me, that I may here cast lots (H1486-portion or destiny) for you before Yahweh in Shiloh.
18:9 And the men went and passed through the land, and described it by cities into seven parts in a book, and came again to Joshua to the host at Shiloh.
Joshua 18:10 And Joshua cast lots (H1486-portion or destiny) for them in Shiloh before Yahweh: and there Joshua divided the land unto the children of Israel according to their divisions.
Joshua 18:11 And the lot (H1486-portion) of the tribe of the children of Benjamin came up according to their families: and the coast of their lot (H1486-portion) came forth between the children of Judah and the children of Joseph.
Joshua 19:51 These are the inheritances, which Eleazar the priest, and Joshua the son of Nun, and the heads of the fathers of the tribes of the children of Israel, divided for an inheritance by lot (H1486-portion) in Shiloh before Yahweh, at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. So they made an end of dividing the country.
Joshua 21:4 And the lot (H1486-portion) came out for the families of the Kohathites: and the children of Aaron the priest, which were of the Levites, had by lot (H1486-portion) out of the tribe of Judah, and out of the tribe of Simeon, and out of the tribe of Benjamin, thirteen cities.
Joshua 21:5 And the rest of the children of Kohath had by lot (H1486-portion) out of the families of the tribe of Ephraim, and out of the tribe of Dan, and out of the half tribe of Manasseh, ten cities.
Joshua 21:6 And the children of Gershon had by lot (H1486-portion) out of the families of the tribe of Issachar, and out of the tribe of Asher, and out of the tribe of Naphtali, and out of the half tribe of Manasseh in Bashan, thirteen cities.
Joshua 21:8 And the children of Israel gave by lot (H1486-portion) unto the Levites these cities with their suburbs, as Yahweh commanded by the hand of Moses.
Joshua 23:4 Behold, I have divided unto you by lot (H5307-inheritance) these nations that remain, to be an inheritance(possession) for your tribes, from Jordan, with all the nations that I have cut off, even unto the great sea westward.
Judges 1:1 Now after the death of Joshua it came to pass, that the children of Israel asked Yahweh, saying, Who shall go up for us against the Canaanites first, to fight against them?
1:2 And Yahweh said, Judah shall go up: behold, I have delivered the land into his hand.
Judges 1:3 And Judah said unto Simeon his brother, Come up with me into my lot (H1486-portion), that we may fight against the Canaanites; and I likewise will go with you into your lot (H1486-portion). So Simeon went with him.
Gideon did not 'cast lot' but he did ask of Yahweh to help him be sure he was going to prevail over the Midianites. This is a demonstration of a form of casting lot.
Judges 6:12 And the angel of Yahweh appeared unto him, and said unto him, Yahweh is with thee, you mighty man of valour.
6:13 And Gideon said unto him, Oh my Master, if Yahweh be with us, why then is all this befallen us? and where be all His miracles which our fathers told us of, saying, Did not Yahweh bring us up from Egypt? but now Yahweh hath forsaken us, and delivered us into the hands of the Midianites.
6:14 And (the angel of) Yahweh looked upon him, and said, Go in this thy might, and you shalt save Israel from the hand of the Midianites: have not I sent thee?
6:15 And he said unto him, Oh my Master, wherewith shall I save Israel? behold, my family is poor in Manasseh, and I am the least in my father's house.
6:16 And (the angel of) Yahweh said unto him, Surely I will be with thee, and you shalt smite the Midianites as one man.
6:17 And he said unto Him, If now I have found grace in thy sight, then shew me a sign that You talkest with me.
6:18 Depart not hence, I pray thee, until I come unto thee, and bring forth my present, and set it before thee. And He said, I will tarry until you come again.
6:19 And Gideon went in, and made ready a kid, and unleavened cakes of an ephah of flour: the flesh he put in a basket, and he put the broth in a pot, and brought it out unto him under the oak, and presented it. (A parallel of Gen 18:3,5,6-8)
6:20 And the angel of God said unto him, Take the flesh and the unleavened cakes, and lay them upon this rock, and pour out the broth. And he did so.
6:21 Then the angel of Yahweh put forth the end of the staff that was in his hand, and touched the flesh and the unleavened cakes; and there rose up fire out of the rock, and consumed the flesh and the unleavened cakes. Then the angel of Yahweh departed out of his sight.
6:22 And when Gideon perceived that he was an angel of Yahweh, Gideon said, Alas, O Yahweh GOD! for because I have seen an angel of Yahweh face to face.
6:23 And Yahweh said unto him, Peace be unto thee; fear not: you shalt not die.
Judges 6:36 And Gideon said unto God, If You wilt save Israel by mine hand, as You hast said,
6:37 Behold, I will put a fleece of wool in the floor; and if the dew be on the fleece only, and it be dry upon all the earth beside, then shall I know that You wilt save Israel by mine hand, as You hast said.
6:38 And it was so: for he rose up early on the morrow, and thrust the fleece together, and wringed the dew out of the fleece, a bowl full of water.
6:39 And Gideon said unto God, Let not thine anger be hot against me, and I will speak but this once: let me prove, I pray You, but this once with the fleece; let it now be dry only upon the fleece, and upon all the ground let there be dew.
6:40 And God did so that night: for it was dry upon the fleece only, and there was dew on all the ground.
The rout of Benjamin
Judges 20:1 Then all the children of Israel went out, and the congregation was gathered together as one man, from Dan even to Beersheba, with the land of Gilead, unto Yahweh in Mizpeh.
20:2 And the chief of all the people, even of all the tribes of Israel, presented themselves in the assembly of the people of God, four hundred thousand footmen that drew sword.
20:3 (Now the children of Benjamin heard that the children of Israel were gone up to Mizpeh.) Then said the children of Israel, Tell us, how was this wickedness?
20:4 And the Levite, the husband of the woman that was slain, answered and said, I came into Gibeah that belongeth to Benjamin, I and my concubine, to lodge.
20:5 And the men of Gibeah rose against me, and beset the house round about upon me by night, and thought to have slain me: and my concubine have they forced, that she is dead.
20:6 And I took my concubine, and cut her in pieces, and sent her throughout all the country of the inheritance of Israel: for they have committed lewdness and folly in Israel.
20:7 Behold, ye are all children of Israel; give here your advice and counsel.
20:8 And all the people arose as one man, saying, We will not any of us go to his tent, neither will we any of us turn into his house.
Judges 20:9 But now this shall be the thing which we will do to Gibeah; we will go up by lot (H1486-portion) against it;
20:10 And we will take ten men of an hundred throughout all the tribes of Israel, and an hundred of a thousand, and a thousand out of ten thousand, to fetch victual for the people, that they may do, when they come to Gibeah of Benjamin, according to all the folly that they have wrought in Israel.
The folly were Benjamite homosexuals that were trying to take advantage of a Levite.
The story goes on to tell that the tribe of Benjamin was nearly wiped out.
1Samuel 10:17 And Samuel called the people together unto Yahweh to Mizpeh;
10:18 And said unto the children of Israel, Thus saith Yahweh God of Israel, I brought up Israel out of Egypt, and delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of all kingdoms, and of them that oppressed you:
10:19 And ye have this day rejected your God, who Himself saved you out of all your adversities and your tribulations; and ye have said unto Him, Nay, but set a king over us. Now therefore present yourselves before Yahweh by your tribes, and by your thousands.
10:20 And when Samuel had caused all the tribes of Israel to come near, the tribe of Benjamin was taken (by lot).
H3920, lakad, taken by lot.
10:21 When he had caused the tribe of Benjamin to come near by their families (clans), the family of Matri was taken (by lot), and Saul the son of Kish was taken (by lot): and when they sought him, he could not be found.
10:22 Therefore they enquired of Yahweh further, if the man should yet come thither. And Yahweh answered, Behold, he hath hid himself among the stuff (that was brought).
10:23 And they ran and fetched him thence: and when he stood among the people, he was higher than any of the people from his shoulders and upward.
10:24 And Samuel said to all the people, See ye him whom Yahweh hath chosen, that there is none like him among all the people? And all the people shouted, and said, God save the king.
1Samuel 14:42 And Saul said, Cast lots (H5307-judge) between me and Jonathan my son. And Jonathan was taken.
The Septuagint is easier reading:
1Samuel 14:24 And Saul committed a great trespass of ignorance in that day, and he lays a curse on the people, saying, Cursed is the man who shall eat bread before the evening; so I will avenge myself on my enemy: and none of the people tasted bread, though all the land was dining.
14:25 And Jaal was a wood abounding in swarms of bees on the face of the ground.
14:26 And the people went into the place of the bees, and, behold, they continued speaking; and, behold, there was none that put his hand to his mouth, for the people feared the oath of Yahweh.
14:27 And Jonathan had not heard when his father adjured the people; and he reached forth the end of the staff that was in his hand, an dipped it into the honeycomb, and returned his hand to his mouth, and his eyes recovered their sight.
14:28 And one of the people answered and said, Thy father solemnly adjured the people, saying, Cursed is the man who shall eat bread to-day. And the people were very faint,
14:29 and Jonathan knew it, and said, My father has destroyed the land: see how my eyes have received sight now that I have tasted a little of this honey.
14:30 Surely if the people had this day eaten freely of the spoils of their enemies which they found, the slaughter among the Philistines would have been greater.
14:31 And on that day he smote some of the Philistines in Machmas; and the people were very weary.
14:32 And the people turned to the spoil; and the people took flocks, and herds, and calves, and slew them on the ground, and the people ate with the blood.
14:33 And it was reported to Saul, saying, The people have sinned against Yahweh, eating with the blood: and Saul said, Out of Getthaim roll a great stone to me hither.
14:34 And Saul said, Disperse yourselves among the people, and tell them to bring hither every one his calf, and every one his sheep: and let them slay it on this stone and sin not against Yahweh in eating with the blood: and the people brought each one that which was in his hand, and they slew them there.
14:35 And Saul built an altar there to Yahweh: this was the first altar that Saul built to Yahweh.
14:36 And Saul said, Let us go down after the Philistines this night, and let us plunder among them till the day break, and let us not leave a man among them. And they said, Do all that is good in thy sight: and the priest said, let us draw nigh hither to God.
14:37 And Saul enquired of God, If I go down after the Philistines, wilt thou deliver them into the hands of Israel? And He answered him not in that day.
14:38 And Saul said, Bring hither all the chiefs of Israel, and know and see by whom this sin has been committed this day.
14:39 For as Yahweh lives who has saved Israel, if answer should be against my son Jonathan, he shall surely die. And there was no one that answered out of all the people.
14:40 And he said to all the men of Israel, Ye shall be under subjection, and I an Jonathan my son will be under subjection: and the people said to Saul, Do that which is good in thy sight.
14:41 And Saul said, O Yahweh God of Israel, why hast You not answered Your servant this day? is the iniquity in me, or in Jonathan my son? Yahweh God of Israel, give clear manifestations; and if the lot should declare this, give, I pray thee, to thy people of Israel, give, I pray, holiness. And Jonathan and Saul are taken, and the people escaped.
1Samuel 14:42 And Saul said, Cast lots (H5307-judgment) between me and my son Jonathan: whomsoever Yahweh shall cause to be taken by lot (judgment), let him die: and the people said to Saul, This thing is not to be done: and Saul prevailed against the people, and they cast lots between him and Jonathan his son, and Jonathan is taken by lot.
14:43 And Saul said to Jonathan, Tell me what thou hast done: and Jonathan told him, and said, I did indeed taste a little honey, with the end of my staff that was in my hand, and, lo! I am to die.
14:44 And Saul said to him, God do so to me, and more also, thou shalt surely die to-day.
14:45 And the people said to Saul, Shall he (Jonathan) that has wrought this great salvation in Israel be put to death this day? As Yahweh lives, there shall not fall to the ground one of the hairs of his head; for the people of God have wrought successfully this day. And the people prayed for Jonathan in that day, and he died not.
14:46 And Saul went up from following the Philistines; and the Philistines departed to their place.
14:47 And Saul received the kingdom, by lot he inherits the office of ruling over Israel: and he fought against all his enemies round about, against Moab, and against the children of Ammon, and against the children of Edom, and against Baethaeor, and against the king of Suba, and against the Philistines: whithersoever he turned, he was victorious.
Saul committed several trespass against Yahweh. He performed priesthood duties, not being a priest. He ignorantly makes an oath that was unnecessary and because of it put a curse on the people. Saul inquired but did not get answers from Yahweh because he did it in unrighteousness.
Saul was against David and sought to kill him, several times.
1Samuel 23:9 And David knew that Saul secretly practiced mischief against him; and he said to Abiathar the priest, Bring hither the ephod.
The ephod was part of the breastplate of the priesthood with the Urim and Thummim. Truth and light.
23:10 Then said David, O Yahweh God of Israel, thy servant hath certainly heard that Saul seeketh to come to Keilah, to destroy the city for my sake.
23:11 Will the men of Keilah deliver me up into his hand? will Saul come down, as thy servant hath heard? O Yahweh God of Israel, I beseech thee, tell thy servant. And Yahweh said, He will come down.
23:12 Then said David, Will the men of Keilah deliver me and my men into the hand of Saul? And Yahweh said, They will deliver thee up.
23:13 Then David and his men, which were about six hundred, arose and departed out of Keilah, and went whithersoever they could go. And it was told Saul that David was escaped from Keilah; and he forbare to go forth.
23:14 And David abode in the wilderness in strong holds, and remained in a mountain in the wilderness of Ziph. And Saul sought him every day, but God delivered him not into his hand.
David asked Yahweh in righteousness, with the ephod, for answers, and he received them.
When casting lot, (asking for Yahweh's choice, or guidance), it must be done in righteousness.
1Samuel 28:3 Now Samuel was dead, and all Israel had lamented him, and buried him in Ramah, even in his own city. And Saul had put away those that had familiar spirits, and the wizards, out of the land.
28:4 And the Philistines gathered themselves together, and came and pitched in Shunem: and Saul gathered all Israel together, and they pitched in Gilboa.
28:5 And when Saul saw the host of the Philistines, he was afraid, and his heart greatly trembled.
28:6 And when Saul enquired of Yahweh, Yahweh answered him not, neither by dreams, nor by Urim, nor by prophets.
Proverbs 1:28 Then shall they call upon Me, but I will not answer; they shall seek Me early, but they shall not find Me:
28:7 Then said Saul unto his servants, Seek me a woman that hath a familiar spirit, that I may go to her, and enquire of her. And his servants said to him, Behold, there is a woman that hath a familiar spirit at Endor.
Saul was not righteous and therefore received no answer from Yahweh.
When we ask Yahweh for something, or when we pray to Him, we must first repent and ask for forgiveness. Then we may present our requests. Yahweh does not hear the prayer of sinners.
Proverbs 15:29 Yahweh is far from the wicked: but He heareth the prayer of the righteous.
The family of Levi
1Chronicles 6:54 Now these are their dwelling places throughout their castles in their coasts, of the sons of Aaron, of the families of the Kohathites: for theirs was the lot (H1486-portion).
1Chronicles 6:61 And unto the sons of Kohath, which were left of the family of that tribe, were cities given out of the half tribe, namely, out of the half tribe of Manasseh, by lot (H1486-portion), ten cities.
1Chronicles 6:63 Unto the sons of Merari were given by lot (H1486-portion), throughout their families, out of the tribe of Reuben, and out of the tribe of Gad, and out of the tribe of Zebulun, twelve cities.
1Chronicles 6:65 And they gave by lot (H1486-portion) out of the tribe of the children of Judah, and out of the tribe of the children of Simeon, and out of the tribe of the children of Benjamin, these cities, which are called by their names.
1Chronicles 16:18 Saying, Unto you will I give the land of Canaan, the lot (H2256-measuring line) of your inheritance;
Lot here is a reference to the borders of the land of Canaan.
1Chronicles 24:5 Thus were they divided by lot (H1486-portion), one sort with another; for the governors of the sanctuary, and governors of the house of God, were of the sons of Eleazar, and of the sons of Ithamar.
1Chronicles 24:31 These likewise cast lots (H1486-portions) over against their brethren the sons of Aaron in the presence of David the king, and Zadok, and Ahimelech, and the chief of the fathers of the priests and Levites, even the principal fathers over against their younger brethren.
1Chronicles 25:8 And they cast lots (H1486-portion), ward against ward, as well the small as the great, the teacher as the scholar.
Septuagint: 8 And they also cast lots for the daily courses, for the great and the small of them, of the perfect ones and the learners.
1Chronicles 26:13 And they cast lots (H1486-portion), as well the small as the great, according to the house of their fathers, for every gate.
1Chronicles 26:14 And the lot (H1486-portion) eastward fell to Shelemiah. Then for Zechariah his son, a wise counsellor, they cast lots (H1486-portion); and his lot (H1486-portion) came out northward.
1Chronicles 26:16 To Shuppim and Hosah the lot came forth westward, with the gate Shallecheth, by the causeway of the going up, ward against ward.
Nehemiah 11:1 And the rulers of the people dwelt at Jerusalem: the rest of the people also cast (H5397-inheritance) lots (H1486-portions), to bring one of ten to dwell in Jerusalem the holy city, and nine parts to dwell in other cities.
Esther 3:7 In the first month, that is, the month Nisan, in the twelfth year of king Ahasuerus, they cast Pur, that is, the lot (H1486-portion), before Haman from day to day, and from month to month, to the twelfth month, that is, the month Adar.
Esther 9:24 Because Haman the son of Hammedatha, the Agagite, the enemy of all the Judahites, had devised against the Judahites to destroy them, and had cast Pur, that is, the lot (H1486-portion), to consume them, and to destroy them;
Haman was an evil Jew that tried to genocide the Judahites. This is probably where the Jews got the idea to fabricate the holocaust hoax.
Esther 7:6 And Esther said, The adversary and enemy is this wicked Haman. Then Haman was afraid before the king and the queen.
The enmity of Genesis 3:15 is always revealed throughout history. The adversary, the enemy, the false accuser is always the Canaanite and Edomite Jews.
The diary of Anne Frank was written with a ballpoint pen. Impossible, because it had not been invented yet. The Germans had neither the fuel or time it would take to cremate millions of Jews. Don't believe the expensive lies of the Jews that constantly push their propaganda with our money!
David was a 'type' of Christ.
Psalm 22:18 They part my garments among them, and cast lots (H1486-portion) upon my vesture.
Matthew 27:35 And they crucified Him, and parted His garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted My garments among them, and upon My vesture did they cast lots.
Psalm 105:11 Saying, Unto you will I give the land of Canaan, the lot (H2256-measuring line) of your inheritance:
Septuagint: 10 And He established it to Jacob for an ordinance, and to Israel for an everlasting covenant; 11 saying To thee will I give the land of Chanaan, the line of your inheritance:
Genesis 28:13 And, behold, Yahweh stood above it, and said, I am Yahweh God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac: the land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed;
Psalm 125:3 For the rod of the wicked (unrighteous) shall not rest upon the lot (H1486-portion) of the righteous; lest the righteous put forth their hands unto iniquity (unrighteousness).
Proverbs 1:10 My son, if sinners entice you, consent you not.
1:11 If they say, Come with us, let us lay wait for blood, let us lurk privily for the innocent without cause:
1:12 Let us swallow them up alive as the grave; and whole, as those that go down into the pit:
1:13 We shall find all precious substance, we shall fill our houses with spoil:
Proverbs 1:14 Cast in your lot (H1486-portion) among us; let us all have one purse:
1:15 My son, walk not you in the way with them; refrain your foot from their path:
Psalm 1:1 Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful.
1:16 For their feet run to evil, and make haste to shed blood.
Proverbs 16:22 Understanding is a wellspring of life unto him that hath it: but the instruction of fools is folly.
16:23 The heart of the wise teacheth his mouth, and addeth learning to his lips.
16:24 Pleasant words are as an honeycomb, sweet to the soul, and health to the bones.
16:25 There is a way that seemeth right unto a man, but the end thereof are the ways of death.
16:26 He that laboureth laboureth for himself; for his mouth craveth it of him.
16:27 An ungodly man diggeth up evil: and in his lips there is as a burning fire.
16:28 A froward man soweth strife: and a whisperer separateth chief friends.
16:29 A violent man enticeth his neighbour, and leadeth him into the way that is not good.
16:30 He shutteth his eyes to devise froward things: moving his lips he bringeth evil to pass.
16:31 The hoary head (Old age) is a crown of glory (honor), if it be found in the ways of righteousness.
16:32 He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and he that ruleth his spirit than he that taketh a city.
Proverbs 16:33 The lot (H1486-portion) is cast into the lap; but the whole disposing thereof is of Yahweh.
Proverbs 18:18 The lot (H1486-portion) causeth contentions (division) to cease, and parteth between the mighty.
Septuagint: 18 A silent man quells strifes, and determines between great powers.
Chapter 17 is a prophecy against Damascus. The Syrians were Aramites, a descendant of Adam, and were once white.
Isaiah 17:10 Because thou hast forgotten the God of thy salvation, and hast not been mindful of the rock of thy strength, therefore shalt thou plant pleasant plants, and shalt set it with strange slips:
Damascus today is not a pleasant plant (pure Adamic nation) anymore.
Isaiah 17:12 Woe to the multitude of many people, which make a noise like the noise of the seas; and to the rushing of nations, that make a rushing like the rushing of mighty waters!
The Middle East is in total turmoil today. These are the Syrians that became strange slips.
The word Arab means to grow dark.
17:13 The nations shall rush like the rushing of many waters: but God shall rebuke them, and they shall flee far off, and shall be chased as the chaff of the mountains before the wind, and like a rolling thing before the whirlwind.
Isaiah 17:14 And behold at eveningtide trouble; and before the morning he is not. This is the portion (H2506-allotment) of them that spoil us, and the lot (H1486-portion) of them that rob us.
'This is the portion...', meaning this is what they will receive for spoiling and robbing us. Death.
Isaiah 34:16 Seek ye out of the book of Yahweh, and read: no one of these shall fail, none shall want her mate: for My mouth it hath commanded, and His spirit it hath gathered them.
Isaiah 34:17 And He hath cast the lot (H1486-portion) for them, and His hand hath divided it unto them by line: they shall possess it for ever, from generation to generation shall they dwell therein.
Yahweh has divide the portion of the righteous from the unrighteous.
Strangers of other races are not accepted
Isaiah 57:1 The righteous perisheth, and no man layeth it to heart: and merciful men are taken away, none considering that the righteous is taken away from the evil to come.
Septuagint: 1 See how the just man has perished, and no one lays it to heart: and righteous men are taken away, and no one considers: for the righteous has been removed out of the way of injustice.
57:2 He shall enter into peace: they shall rest in their beds, each one walking in his uprightness.
57:3 But draw near hither, ye sons of the sorceress, the seed of the adulterer and the whore.
The Septuagint and others read, sons of the sorceress as lawless children.
The seed of the adulterer and the whore.
Verse 4 points out a lawless (false) seed. This would be a seed conceived outside of the law. The seed of an adulterer and a whore would be outside the law, race mixing.
57:4 Against whom do ye sport yourselves? against whom make ye a wide mouth, and draw out the tongue? are ye not children of transgression, a seed of falsehood,
Septuagint: 4 Wherein have ye been rioting? and against whom have ye opened your mouth, and against whom have ye loosed your tongue? are ye not children of destruction? a lawless seed?
57:5 Enflaming yourselves with idols under every green tree, slaying the children in the valleys under the clifts of the rocks? (Lev 18:21)
The Hebrew texts do not have 'with idols'.
Verse 5 has everything to do with sexual rituals in the groves.
Our people were carried off into paganism by lawless children who were a seed of falsehood.
Isaiah 57:6 Among the smooth stones of the stream is your portion; they, they are your lot (H1486-portion): even to them hast you poured a drink offering, you hast offered a meat offering. Should I receive comfort in these?
57:7 Upon a lofty and high mountain hast thou set thy bed: even thither wentest thou up to offer sacrifice.
Idol worship and fornication were always connected. And requires race mixing.
Ezekiel 16:16 And of thy garments thou didst take, and deckedst thy high places with divers colours, and playedst the harlot thereupon: the like things shall not come, neither shall it be so.
The Septuagint reads the last part as: “... therefore thou shalt never come in, nor shall the like take place.
57:8 Behind the doors also and the posts hast thou set up thy remembrance: for thou hast discovered thyself to another than Me, and art gone up; thou hast enlarged thy bed, and made thee a covenant with them; thou lovedst their bed where thou sawest it.
Race mixing. Society accepts it, the “churches” do too. They marry them. They admit them. They all will receive the same portion (lot). Death.
Chapters 13-17 are Jeremiah's indictment against the remnant of Judah. Chapters 2-12 is a culmination of the list of charges by Yahweh against His people. Here in 13, we see the lot (portion) for their disobedience of idolatry and race-mixing.
Jeremiah 13:25 This is your lot (H1486-portion), the portion of your measures from Me, saith Yahweh; because you hast forgotten Me, and trusted in falsehood.
'Portion of your measures' is, properly something weighed out.
Job 20:29 This is the portion of a wicked man from God, and the heritage appointed unto him by God.
Psalm 11:6 Upon the wicked He shall rain snares, fire and brimstone, and an horrible tempest: this shall be the portion of their cup.
Well, the portion (lot) to Israel was the coming invasion, destruction and deportation by the Babylonians.
Ezekiel 45:1 Moreover, when ye shall divide by lot (H5307-inheritance) the land for inheritance (possession), ye shall offer an oblation unto Yahweh, an holy portion of the land: the length shall be the length of five and twenty thousand reeds, and the breadth shall be ten thousand. This shall be holy in all the borders thereof round about.
Septuagint: 1 And when ye measure the land for inheritance, ye shall set apart first-fruits to Yahweh, a holy space of the land, in length twenty and five thousand reeds, and in breadth twenty thousand; it shall be holy in all the borders thereof round about.
Ezekiel 47:22 And it shall come to pass, that ye shall divide it by lot (H5307-inheritance) for an inheritance (possession) unto you, and to the strangers (of kin) that sojourn among you, which shall beget children among you: and they shall be unto you as born in the country among the children of Israel; they shall have inheritance with you among the tribes of Israel.
These would be our Adamite brethren. Those of the generations between Adam and Abraham. Genesis 3:23.
Ephesians 3:6 That the (Adamic) nations should be fellowheirs, and of the same body (race), and partakers of his promise in Christ by the gospel (truth of our heritage, law, covenants and promises):
9 After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all (the) nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands;
10 And cried with a loud voice, saying, Salvation to our God which sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb.
The Bible is the book of the descent (generations), race, posterity, seed of Adam, Gen 5:1.
There are several branches of Adamites, but Yahweh chose the children of Jacob to be the light of society out of the greater Adamic race.
The Jews are not Adamites or Israelites. They are Canaanites and Edomites. They are the other seed of Genesis 3:15.
Ezekiel 48:29 This is the land which ye shall divide by lot (H5307-inheritance) unto the tribes of Israel for inheritance (possession), and these are their portions, saith Yahweh GOD.
Daniel 12:13 But go you your way till the end be: for you shalt rest, and stand in your lot (H1486-portion) at the end of the days.
Joel 3:3 And they (the other nations) have cast lots (H1486-destiny) for (over) My people; and have given a boy for an harlot, and sold a girl for wine, that they might drink.
Obadiah 1:11 In the day that you (Edom) stoodest on the other side, in the day that the strangers (other races/nations) carried away captive his (Jacob's) forces, and foreigners (other nations) entered into his (Jacob's) gates, and cast lots (H1486-portion) upon Jerusalem, even you (Edom) wast as one of them (the other nations).
1:12 But thou shouldest not have looked on the day of thy brother (Jacob) in the day that he became a stranger; neither shouldest thou (Edom) have rejoiced over the children of Judah in the day of their destruction; neither shouldest thou have spoken proudly in the day of distress.
Proverbs 17:5 Whoso mocketh the poor reproacheth his Maker: and he that is glad at calamities shall not be unpunished.
1:13 Thou (Edom) shouldest not have entered into the gate of My people (Jacob) in the day of their calamity; yea, thou (Edom) shouldest not have looked on their (Jacob's) affliction in the day of their calamity, nor have laid hands on their substance in the day of their calamity;
1:14 Neither shouldest thou (Edom) have stood in the crossway, to cut off those of his (Jacob's) that did escape; neither shouldest thou (Edom) have delivered up those of his (Jacob's) that did remain in the day of distress.
This describes the taking of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans (Babylonians), as we have seen that the Edomites were blamed for the destruction of the temple at this time, and for encouraging the destruction of the city itself, in 1 Esdras chapter 4 and in Psalm 137. Here Esau (Edom) is also blamed for much of the slaughter inflicted upon the Israelites (children of Jacob) of Jerusalem at that time.
Jonah 1:1 Now the word of Yahweh came unto Jonah the son of Amittai, saying,
1:2 Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness is come up before Me.
Genesis 10:11 Out of that land (ancient kingdom of Nimrod) went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah,
1:3 But Jonah rose up to flee unto Tarshish from the presence of Yahweh, and went down to Joppa; and he found a ship going to Tarshish: so he paid the fare thereof, and went down into it, to go with them unto Tarshish from the presence of Yahweh.
There was much intercourse through trade across the Mediterranean in the ancient world. Tyre, Sidon, Joppa and Dor were all busy ports at this time. Joppa has a place in the Greeks myths: it was said to be the place where Perseus rescued Andromeda from a sea monster, a tale which even Josephus repeats.
Jonah attempted to flee on a ship “from the presence” of Yahweh. It was a common mistake in the ancient world, to associate a god with a certain place, where apparently the gods of a people became associated with the place in which that people lived.
1:4 But Yahweh sent out a great wind into the sea, and there was a mighty tempest in the sea, so that the ship was like to be broken.
1:5 Then the mariners were afraid, and cried every man unto his god, and cast forth the wares that were in the ship into the sea, to lighten it of them. But Jonah was gone down into the sides of the ship; and he lay, and was fast asleep.
1:6 So the shipmaster came to him, and said unto him, What meanest thou, O sleeper? arise, call upon thy God, if so be that God will think upon us, that we perish not.
Verse 8 indicates that the men on the ship did not know much about Jonah. Therefore here it is not necessary that the shipmaster knew much about Jonah's god. Rather, every man crying out to his own god, it is much more likely that the shipmaster wanted to cover all of the theological bases.
Jonah 1:7 And they said every one to his fellow, Come, and let us cast lots (H1486-destiny), that we may know for whose cause this evil is upon us. So they cast lots (H1486-destiny), and the lot (H1486-portion or destiny) fell upon Jonah.
Micah 2:1 Woe to them that devise iniquity, and work evil upon their beds! when the morning is
light, they practice it, because it is in the power of their hand.
The phrase “work evil upon their beds” is not a reference to the sexual fornication which had become commonplace, although it could certainly be inclusive of that. Rather, it is a reference to the proclivity of the people to dream up wicked schemes as they lie in bed at night, putting their ungodly desires to practice when they awake in the morning. The Septuagint reads: “They meditated troubles, and wrought wickedness on their beds, and they put it in execution with the daylight; for they have not lifted up their hands to God.”
2:2 And they covet fields, and take them by violence; and houses, and take them away: so they oppress a man and his house, even a man and his heritage.
Israel, fallen into apostasy and the paganism which had been mandated by the State since the days of Jeroboam I (1 Kings 12:26-33), had fallen to the level of self-serving decadence which is found in what we now call materialism.
2:3 Therefore thus saith Yahweh; Behold, against this family do I devise an evil, from which ye shall not remove your necks; neither shall ye go haughtily: for this time is evil.
This evil is coming upon the nation in the form of the imminent Assyrian invasions and the resulting captivity, which the nation was not going to be able to avoid.
2:4 In that day shall one take up a parable against you, and lament with a doleful lamentation, and say, We be utterly spoiled: he hath changed the portion of my people: how hath he removed it from me! turning away he hath divided our fields.
The Greek of the Septuagint, which Brenton's version reflects well here, punctuates the end of the verse differently: “... the portion of My people has been measured out with a line, and there was none to hinder him so as to turn him back; your fields have been divided.” The children of Israel are warned that their lands would be taken away, that new divisions of those lands would be assigned to others, and that they would have no recourse in the matter: “and there was none to turn him back”.
Yet there seems to be a deeper meaning here than simply a giving of the land of Israel over to the Assyrians. In the Septuagint version Yahweh is attributed as saying “the portion of My people has been measured out with a line”, and Yahweh's portion is His people, as He says in Deuteronomy 32:9 “9 For Yahweh's portion is His people; Jacob is the lot of His inheritance.” Therefore the statement may be taken in two ways, referring to the people themselves in relation to God, and to the land in relation to the people. The people themselves were also divided, and some would be put to the sword while others would survive in Assyrian captivity, and others would escape altogether. From Amos chapter 7, where we see a very similar prophecy at this very same time: “7 Thus He shewed me: and, behold, Yahweh stood upon a wall made by a plumbline, with a plumbline in His hand. 8 And Yahweh said unto me, Amos, what seest thou? And I said, A plumbline. Then said Yahweh, Behold, I will set a plumbline in the midst of My people Israel: I will not again pass by them any more: 9 And the high places of Isaac shall be desolate, and the sanctuaries of Israel shall be laid waste; and I will rise against the house of Jeroboam with the sword.”
Micah 2:5 Therefore you shalt have none that shall cast a cord (H2256-measuring line) by lot (H1486-portion) in the congregation of Yahweh.
None of Yahweh's people in Israel would have any part in the new division of the land.
Nahum 3:1 Woe to the bloody city! it is all full of lies and robbery; the prey departeth not;
3:2 The noise of a whip, and the noise of the rattling of the wheels, and of the pransing horses, and of the jumping chariots.
3:3 The horseman lifteth up both the bright sword and the glittering spear: and there is a multitude of slain, and a great number of carcases; and there is none end of their corpses; they stumble upon their corpses:
3:4 Because of the multitude of the whoredoms of the wellfavoured harlot, the mistress of witchcrafts, that selleth nations through her whoredoms, and families through her witchcrafts.
9 But these two things shall come to thee in a moment in one day, the loss of children, and widowhood: they shall come upon thee in their perfection for the multitude of thy sorceries, and for the great abundance of thine enchantments.
12 Stand now with thine enchantments, and with the multitude of thy sorceries, wherein thou hast laboured from thy youth; if so be thou shalt be able to profit, if so be thou mayest prevail.
3:5 Behold, I am against thee, saith Yahweh of hosts; and I will discover thy skirts upon thy face, and I will shew the nations thy nakedness, and the kingdoms thy shame.
The Hebrew word for wellfavoured does not indicate favor which comes from God. Rather, in order to make a comparison Nahum insinuates that Nineveh is, allegorically, an attractive whore.
3:6 And I will cast abominable filth upon thee, and make thee vile, and will set thee as a gazingstock.
Hebrews 10:33 Partly, whilst ye were made a gazingstock both by reproaches and afflictions; and partly, whilst ye became companions of them that were so used.
3:7 And it shall come to pass, that all they that look upon thee shall flee from thee, and say, Nineveh is laid waste: who will bemoan her? whence shall I seek comforters for thee? (Rev 18:10)
The two great mounds where the ruins of Nineveh are found continue to attest to the perfection of the Word of Yahweh.
3:8 Art thou better than populous No, that was situate among the rivers, that had the waters round about it, whose rampart was the sea, and her wall was from the sea?
The reference to No is a reference to the city in Egypt called Amon-No, which is also known as Thebes.
3:9 Ethiopia and Egypt were her strength, and it was infinite; Put and Lubim were thy helpers.
The reference is to No (Thebes) in verse 8 and not to Nineveh, which is being addressed. Therefore the rendering of the last clause as it is found in the NAS version is more accurate: “Put and Lubim were among her helpers.” Thebes stood against Assyria with the help of these surrounding nations, yet it was nevertheless destroyed by the Assyrians, and the prophet is using its example as a warning to the Assyrians themselves.
Nahum 3:10 Yet was she carried away, she went into captivity: her young children also were dashed in pieces at the top of all the streets: and they cast lots (H1486-portion) for her honourable men, and all her great men were bound in chains.
Here Nahum continues to refer to No, or Thebes in Egypt, as a warning to Assyria.
While after the fall of Nineveh there were scatterings of Assyrian people in diverse places, there were no longer any great Assyrian peoples, and the national identity was completely destroyed.
So we can see in the OT that casting lots is used in several ways.
It was used as:
A measuring line
Dividing land according to size of tribe for possession and inheritance
A portion of punishment or reward
Deciding the destiny of life, in both good and bad situations, life or death
In the prophets it showed more of the results of disobedience, the measure or portion of punishment
David used it to enquirer or ask Yahweh for help in making decisions. This requires careful consideration and seriousness and out of righteousness.
Now let's examine how casting lot is used in the NT.
G2624 kataklērodoteō kat-ak-lay-rod-ot-eh'-o
From G2596 distribution and a derivative of a compound of G2819 bits of wood or dice and G1325 to give; to be a giver of lots to each, that is, (by implication) to apportion an estate: - divide by lot.
G2819 klēros klay'-ros
Probably from G2806 to break (specifically of bread) (through the idea of using bits of wood, etc., for the purpose); a die (for drawing chances); by implication a portion (as if so secured); by extension an acquisition (especially a patrimony, figuratively): - heritage, inheritance, lot, part.
G2975 lagchanō lang-khan'-o
A prolonged form of a primary verb, which is only used as an alternate in certain tenses; to lot, that is, determine (by implication receive) especially by lot: - his lot be, cast lots, obtain.
Matthew 27:35 And they crucified Him, and parted His garments, casting lots (G2819-with bits of wood or dice for drawing chances): that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots (G2819-acquire).
Matthew's account shows they may have acquired pieces of His garments by casting lot (parting it among them).
Psalm 22:18 They part my garments among them, and cast lots upon my vesture.
Luke 1:9 According to the custom of the priest's office, his lot was (G2975-determined) to burn incense when he went into the temple of Yahweh.
The divisions of the priests were called courses in the Old Testament (1 Chr 23:6). The names Zacharias and Elisabeth are, as Hebrew names always had deeper meanings, quite Providential. Zacharias is from a Hebrew phrase meaning “Yahweh remembers”, and Elisabeth, which was also the name of the wife of Aaron (Elisheba), means “God of the oath”. Yahweh remembers His promises.
David divided the courses of the priests by lot. The word in 1Chr 23:6 for 'divided' is, chalaq (H2505) to be smooth (figuratively); by implication (as smooth stones were used for lots)
Luke 23:34 Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast lots (G2819-bits, dice, stones).
Acts 7:60 And he (Stephen) kneeled down, and cried with a loud voice, Prince, lay not this sin to their charge. And when he had said this, he fell asleep (died by stoning).
In verse 34, Christ is talking about those Israelites (Judaeans, Romans, Greeks) that were deceived by the priesthood and had no understanding of what they were doing. Stephen also prays for the ignorant that stoned him.
John 19:24 They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots (G2975-determine) for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots (G2819-with bits, to acquire). These things therefore the soldiers did.
Rend means, to split, divide, sever. It is evident from John's account that they may not have torn it in pieces, rather, they cast lots (bits, dice) to see (determine) who would get (acquire) the whole thing.
Acts 1:15 And in those days Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples, and said, (the number of names together were about an hundred and twenty,)
Revelation 3:4 Thou hast a few names even in Sardis which have not defiled their garments; and they shall walk with Me in white: for they are worthy.
1:16 Men and brethren, this scripture must needs have been fulfilled, which the Holy Spirit by the mouth of David spake before concerning Judas, which was guide to them that took Jesus.
Judas Iscariot. Who was an Edomite Jew. Who sold Christ for 30 pieces of silver.
Psalm 41:9 Yea, Mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, which did eat of My bread, hath lifted up his heel against Me.
1:17 For he was numbered with us, and had obtained (G2975) part of this ministry. (Matt 10:4)
1:18 Now this man (Judas) purchased a field with the reward of iniquity; and falling headlong, he burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out.
1:19 And it was known unto all the dwellers at Jerusalem; insomuch as that field is called in their proper tongue, Aceldama, that is to say, The field of blood.
1:20 For it is written in the book of Psalms, Let his habitation be desolate, and let no man dwell therein: and his bishoprick (office) let another take.
Psalm 69:25 Let their habitation be desolate; and let none dwell in their tents.
6 Set thou a wicked man over him: and let Satan stand at his right hand.
7 When he shall be judged, let him be condemned: and let his prayer become sin.
8 Let his days be few; and let another take his office.
1:21 Wherefore of these men which have companied with us all the time that the Prince Jesus went in and out among us,
1:22 Beginning from the baptism of John, unto that same day that He was taken up from us, must one be ordained to be a witness with us of His resurrection. (John 15:27)
The Greek: 22 beginning from the immersing of John until the day when He was taken up from us, for one of them to become a witness with us of His resurrection.
The qualification for an apostle was that they must have been an eyewitness of 'all the time the Prince Yahshua went in and out with them' and of His resurrection.
1:23 And they appointed two, Joseph called Barsabas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias.
1:24 And they prayed, and said, Thou, Prince, which knowest the hearts of all men, shew whether of these two thou hast chosen,
1:25 That he may take part of this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place.
Acts 1:26 And they gave forth their lots (G2819-bits); and the lot fell upon Matthias; and he was numbered with the eleven apostles.
Their lots were, (through the idea of using bits of wood, etc., for the purpose); a die (for drawing chances).
Acts 13:19 And when He had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, He divided their land to them by lot (G2624-apportion).
2Peter 1:1 Simon Peter, a servant and an apostle of Jesus Christ, to them that have obtained (G2975) like precious faith with us through the righteousness of God and our Saviour Jesus Christ:
Christ determined that Peter would be one of the few that would receive the eyes to see and ears to hear.
So we can see in the NT that casting lots is done either between men and between men and Yahweh.
Casting lots were done with bits of wood, dice and even smooth stones.
Between men, it was used to part, divide, or obtain something.
Between men and Yahweh, it was used to make a righteous decision.
See also talkshoe/YCP/1John(the older one) for show on casting lot.